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Finding out how much acid there is in a solution

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Introduction

Richard Dilley Finding out how much acid there is in a solution PLAN The aim of this investigative experiment is to discover the accurate concentration of sulphuric acid (H2SO4), which is found in a solution. The concentration is thought to be between 0.05 mol dm�� and 0.15 mol dm��. I have been given access to anhydrous sodium carbonate (NaCO3) and a range of indicators. In order to obtain the concentration of the acid in the solution I will have to titrate the known solution of sodium carbonate with the unknown sulphuric acid. The indicator I will be using to indicate when the reaction is fully completed is methyl orange. This is because I am using a strong acid and a weak alkali and methyl orange is the most appropriate indicator for this type of acid-alkali titration. Firstly I must create a solution of sodium carbonate that has a known concentration: Standard solution of sodium carbonate Apparatus * Safety Goggles * Spatula * Solid anhydrous sodium carbonate * Balance (2 d.p.) * Beaker (250cm�) * Bottle of distilled water * Stirring rod * Volumetric flask (250cm�) * Pipette (25cm�) Before carrying out the procedure it is necessary to work out how much solid sodium carbonate is to be used in making the known concentration. ...read more.

Middle

As such I am to be wearing goggles and a lab coat. Also any slippages would cause the area to become slippery and dangerous, if they are not cleaned up quickly. Methyl orange The same precautions apply for this as did with the sodium carbonate. Sulphuric acid Highly concentrated acids react vigorously with water. The concentration of my acid is no more than 0.15 mol dm��, which is therefore not very harmful. However, I must still avoid contact with eyes, skin and clothing and I must clean up any spillages quickly. My plan for this acid-alkali titration should prove to be both precise and give reliable results, provided all chemicals are measured accurately and correctly. The percentage errors associated with some of the equipment will be taken into account during the evaluation. Results Rough 1 2 Initial reading (cm�) 0.00 0.00 0.00 Final reading (cm�) 24.85 24.90 24.90 Titre 24.85 24.90 24.90 Calculations To calculate the concentration of the sodium carbonate solution used: 2.65g solid anhydrous sodium carbonate Molar mass of Na2CO3 = 2 x 23 + 12 + 3 x 16 = 106g Moles Na2CO3 = 2.65/106 = 0.0250 moles (3sf) ...read more.

Conclusion

Errors caused by technique * Mixing of the solution in the volumetric flask may not be totally through. * The burette and pipette may not have been thoroughly washed out with the solutions used. * The conical flask may not have been thoroughly washed out with distilled water between titrations. * The end point may not be accurate if the solution from the burette is not added drop by drop with continuous swirling. * Too much or too little indicator may have been added each time It is not possible to place a value on the effect of human error on the reliability and accuracy of results. However, further repetition of the experiment would limit the effect human error has on results. Improvements to the investigation would be mainly aiming to reduce the human error. This could be done by using equipment that displays values and measurements digitally, or detect the colour change more accurately for example using a light detector and beam of light through the conical flask. I could also use a balance of more than 2 decimal places. Overall I do not believe my results could have been that inaccurate seeing as my titres were the same. I feel that the procedure allowed me to discover the accurate concentration of the acid to a fairly accurate and reliable degree. ...read more.

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