Heat of Neutralisation - I am going to investigate the heat of neutralisation between acids and alkalis.

Heat of Neutralisation.

Prediction

I predict that no matter what strong acid and alkali react together you will always get the same heat of neutralisation because the same reaction is always taking place.

E.g.

1. HCl and NaOH
2. HNO3 and NaOH
3. NO3 and KOH

1. H++Cl¯+Na+ + OH¯                 Na++Cl¯ + H2O

H+ + OH¯                 H2O

2. H+ + NO3¯+ Na++OH¯                    Na+ + NO3¯+ H2O

H+ + OH¯                  H2O

3. H+ + NO3¯ + K+ + OH¯                       K+ + NO3¯ + H2O

H++ OH¯                  H2O

I am also going to react 2 weak acids (ethanoic acid and propanoic acid) with a strong alkali (sodium hydroxide.) I predict that the energy change i.e. the heat of neutralisation will not be same as before because with weak acids and alkalis some energy is required to fully ionise them.

Heat of neutralisation is the heat change when an acid and an alkali react together to form 1 mole of water.

Fair Test

To ensure the investigation is made fair I will always use the same concentration of acid and alkali (1 mole.) The experiments will always be carried out at room temperature so the initial temperature is the same. I will also repeat the experiments to obtain good results, if the results vary in any way I will calculate the average.

Pipettes

Thermometers

Polystyrene Cup

Safety

To ensure the experiments are carried out safely I will always wear a lab coat and goggles. My hair will be tied up. I will make sure my work area is tidy and will observe all other laboratory rules.

Method

1. Measure 25cm3 of acid into a polystyrene cup and take temperature.
2. Measure 5cm3 of alkali and record temperature. Add to the acid and take the maximum temperature.
3. Keep on adding 5cm3 of alkali and stir, recording the maximum temperature each time.
4. ...

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

This is quite a good piece of work, with just a little bit of attention, it could be improved. A relevant method and valid conclusion. Shows a good use of data to reinforce the conclusion. 3 stars