How the structure of cells is related to their function.

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How the structure of cells is related to their function.

All living things are made up of cells, whether its plants, humans or even bacteria.  There are two different types of cells one is the prokaryotic and the other is the eukaryotic. The name cell was used by an English man who in 1665 use the first microscope and reported seeing what he described looked like the sleeping chambers in the monasteries that were called cells, in a piece of cork.1 

The first of the two types is the Prokaryotic cell, the pro meaning before the nucleus as this cell has no true nucleus.2 Prokaryotic cells are surrounded by a cell wall and a cells membrane, and in some ways this makes them similar to a plant cell which is eukaryotic, but they have no nucleus or organelles inside, but they do have flagella’s and cilia on the outside. The flagellum is a long whip like tail attached to the end of the prokaryotic cell which helps with its movement. The cilia are small spiked hairs that help to transport fluid in and out of the cell and for protection against harmful substances. They are also found in abundance in the eukaryotic cells in the human trachea where they collect dirt, they either by moving it down into the stomach or push it back up into to the mouth to spit it out.3

One of the most common prokaryotic cells would be bacteria, they are the smallest cellular organism, and each human being has at least 10xs as many bacteria on their body as their own cells.3 It has no true nucleus but it does have a nucleiod region where its Deoxyribonucleic acid (D.N.A) is found. It has the flagella for movement on the outside along with the cilia. The cell membrane controls what goes in and out of the bacteria cell. The cell wall protects the bacterial cell and gives it its shape and structure.  Some bacteria cells have an outer most layer joined to the cell wall called the capsule this is slime like layer to help the bacteria fight off other organism which are made to kill them like Antibiotics. It also helps them attach themselves to surfaces and get nutrients.4

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The eukaryotic cells are very different indeed. Not only have they got a cell membrane, a cell wall, cilia and flagella, it also has a battery of organelles inside which each have their own special jobs according to what the specific cells function is.

For example if you take the sperm cell in the male reproductive system, (pictured below in fig1) it has a long distance to travel and then when it finally gets there it has to try and fertilise the female egg. Inside the sperm there is nucleus, this is the most prominent part and could be called ...

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The punctuation, grammar and spelling are all fine. The referencing is presented neatly but the candidate could use a proper referencing technique next time for it to look more professional.

The candidate explains the different types of cells and the functions of the different parts to a very high level. The information is displayed well in an essay format and all the information synthesised so that the candidate is not just providing continuous lists of the functions of each cell organelle. The candidate gives examples of specialised cells and explains well how they differ from normal cells hence enabling them to become adapted to their function. The candidate also uses images to help convey the meaning of their text.

The candidate responds very well to the question and this piece is done to an high level. Whilst the candidate could provide greater scientific depth to get greater marks, the range of information used and the way it is presented and easy to read shows a very high level for this qualification. The conclusion is well rounded and adequate.