human body system

Authors Avatar


I described the structure and function of the major body systems. Then I chose two of the body systems and wrote about their interrelationship.  I also described the observation I have made to monitor a healthy client. I have made accurate records of basic observation on a fellow student in my class.

I described the link between the care client receives and the state of two body systems and I suggested how the care client receives could be improved to have beneficial effects on body systems without having any harmful effects on another body systems.

Task 1:


The cardiovascular system is the heart and blood vessels that circulate blood throughout the body, bringing oxygen and nutrients to muscles and organs, and then returning it to the heart to be pumped again. Any disruption in the flow of blood can cause damage to an organ, including the heart.

The system of channels through which the blood flows is called the circulatory system, and includes the heart, lungs, and blood vessels. Arteries, arterioles (small arteries), and capillaries (tiny blood vessels) carry blood from the heart to the body. Veins and venules (small veins) return the blood from the body to the heart.

The heart can be divided into the left and right sides. The right half collects blood from the body and pumps it to the lung. In the lung it collects oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide. The left half collects blood from the lungs and pumps it to the body.

Because of this, the heart is actually a double pump (to the lungs and to the body) both working at the same time.

Pulmonary circulation is the route taken by blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and back to the heart at the left atrium, which is circulation to the lungs.

Systemic circulation is the route taken by blood from the left ventricle to the head and body and back to the heart at the right atrium, which is circulation to the body.


The route of blood through the heart:

Deoxygenated blood (blood with oxygen removed) comes from the body into the right atrium along the vena cava.

The right atrium contracts and blood passes through the tricuspid valve to the tight ventricle.

The right ventricle contracts forcing blood into the pulmonary artery.

The tricuspid valve stops blood going into the right atrium when the right ventricle contracts. The pulmonary valves stop blood being sucked back into the ventricle when the ventricle relaxes.

Blood travels along the pulmonary artery to the lungs where it receives oxygen and loses carbon dioxide. Then oxygenated blood travels back to the heart along the pulmonary vein. Blood enters the lungs at the left atrium.

The left atrium contracts and blood passes through the mitral valve to the left ventricle. The left ventricle contracts forcing blood into the aorta.

The mitral valve stops blood going into the left atrium when the left ventricle contracts. The aortic valve stops blood returning to the left ventricle from the aorta. Blood travels along arteries to the cells of the body.

We have three blood vessels, which are arteries, veins and capillaries.

Arteries take blood away from heart. They have thick elastic tissue and muscles layer allows the wall to expand and then return to its original size with each heart beat.

Veins take blood back to heart except in hepatic portal vein. They have thin walls and expand easily.

Capillaries are single layer of cell. They go through organs and tissues and have once thick cells.



Respiration means to breathe in oxygen and to breathe out carbon dioxide.

The human body needs oxygen to keep it alive. Breathing has two functions:

  1. To transfer oxygen from the air outside the body to the lungs, where it can be collected by the blood and circulated through out the body.
  2. To get ride of carbon dioxide and waste products in the body.


 When we breathe we should breathe through the nose because the nose contains special linings that warm, moisture and filter the incoming air. This cause the air sacs in the lungs don’t get infected, dirty or dried. After passing down the back of the throat the air travels through the windpipe into the branches, the bronchioles. Each bronchioles ends in the branch of tiny air sacs called alveoli.

Around each alveoli are lots of capillaries and walls are very thin. The oxygen passes through the walls of alveoli into the capillaries and it is then carried in the red blood cells to all parts of the body.

 The opposite happens with carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is carried by the blood into the capillaries then into the alveoli. It is then expelled from the lungs when we breathe out.



Digestion is to break down food so that can go to blood stream.

Mouth chews food up into easy to swallow balls. Salivary glands produce an enzyme called amylase to start to break down starch. Then food carries down to oesophagus. Then from oesophagus gets into stomach. Stomach also produces protease enzymes and hydrochloric acid to kill bacteria and to give the right PH for the protease enzymes to work. The food stays about five minutes before moving to small intestine.

Join now!

Small intestine is five meter long and is where most digestion takes place. Small intestine produces the protease, amylase and lipase enzymes. This is also where food absorbed into the blood. Small intestine is long and folded to increase the surface area. Tiny finger like things called villi cover the inner surface to increase the surface area even more. They increase surface area to digest food so that digested food is absorbed much quickly into the blood. Villi has single layer of cells.

Any food that has not been digested passes into large intestine where water is absorbed from ...

This is a preview of the whole essay