Investigate a neutralisation reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.

Authors Avatar

Aim: To investigate a neutralisation reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.

     To investigate a neutralisation reaction I must know all the factors that affect it in order to investigate in this.

Here are all the factors;

Temperature – This will defiantly affect an exothermic or endothermic reaction.

Concentration – If the solution is made more concentrated it means it contains more particles of reactant, therefore more collisions are likely and an result of this is that the temperature will decrease because bonds are being made.

Type of Acid – Different acids all have different properties and can cause different temperatures.

Type of Alkali – This is the same as the type of acid but instead the different properties of an alkali.  

Type of Reaction – Different type of reactions will either be exothermic or endothermic. Example of this is a combustion reaction, which is exothermic because of the heat it gives out.

     These are the factors that will affect a neutralisation reaction. A neutralisation is either exothermic or endothermic. Exothermic reactions are the reactions that give out energy and therefore the temperature rises as a result of this. Endothermic reactions are the ones that take in energy from the surrounding and cause the temperature to decrease as a result of this.

     Making and breaking bonds either require energy or give out energy. When breaking bonds it requires energy, which means it’s a endothermic reaction because the heat in the surrounding is absorbed to break the chemical bond. When making bonds it gives out energy due to the reaction that has been taken place and means that it’s an exothermic reaction.

     Every reaction that happens will either give out energy or take in energy due to the type of reaction. The reason for this is because it needs the energy or gives out the energy.

     To tell weather it is an exothermic or endothermic reaction a thermometer can be used to indicate what type of reaction it is. If the temperature increases it means it is a exothermic reaction and if the temperature decreases it means it’s a endothermic reaction.

     During these reactions, energy is transferred. This can be shown on a energy level diagram.

Exothermic energy level diagram




                                           ΔH is negative

                               Reaction pathway

ΔH is the symbol for the change in energy in a chemical reaction. This diagram shows that ΔH is negative for exothermic reactions. It shows that the reactants have more energy than the products because its making bonds and means that the reactants give out lots of energy.

Endothermic energy level diagram


        ΔH is positive

                                 Reaction pathway

     This diagram shows ΔH is positive for endothermic reactions. It also shows that the products have more energy than the reactants because it gives out energy when breaking bonds.

Join now!

     For this investigation I will be doing a neutralisation reaction. The neutralisation reaction will need an acid and an alkali to be reacted together. This will produce a salt and water.

Acid + Alkali → Salt + water

    The acid I will decide to use is hydrochloric acid. The alkali I will use is sodium hydroxide. I will react these two together in a polythene cup and record the temperature to tell weather it’s an exothermic or endothermic reaction.

     The factor I will choose to vary is the concentration of the ...

This is a preview of the whole essay