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Investigating making Epsom salts by varying the rates of reaction.

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Introduction

Epsom Salts Coursework Aim: investigating making Epsom salts by varying the rates of reaction. Research: Reaction with Dilute Acid: Potassium, sodium, lithium and calcium all react violently with dilute H2SO4(aq) and dilute HCl (aq).The reaction is similar to the reaction with water, forming the metal salt (either sulphate or chloride) plus H2(g). Magnesium, aluminum, zinc, iron, tin and lead react safely with dilute acid, magnesium is the fastest and lead is the slowest of the six. Magnesium + sulphuric acid magnesium sulphate + hydrogen. Mg(s) + H2SO4(aq) MgSO4(aq) + H2(g) There are many different uses for Epsom salts (magnesium Sulphate) When magnesium sulphate is absorbed through the skin, such as in a bath, it draws toxins from the body, sedates the nervous system, reduces swelling, relaxes muscles, is a natural emollient, exfoliate, and much more. Epsom salts can be used for many things such as: * Relaxing and Sedative Baths * Face Cleaner * To make Homemade Skin Masks * To soak feet * To exfoliate skin * Remove Excess Oil from Hair * Hairspray * Hair Volumizer * Soak Sprains and Bruises * And to remove splinters This piece of information was obtained from www.askjeeves.com ------care2.com. Epsom salts is the name originally given to hydrated magnesium sulphate, MgSO4.7H20 .Millions of people all over the world have asked for Epsom salts, and used it with recognisable effect, without knowing anything about Epsom. The reasons for the efficacious action of Epsom salts were not known until a long time after its discovery, and magnesium as an element was not discovered until nearly a century later. This piece of information was obtained from www.askjeeves.com The bonds between magnesium and sulphate has a lot to do with the rates of reaction and how different variables affect the substances so here is some information about the rates of reaction: Some chemical reactions are fast others are slow. ...read more.

Middle

The delivery tube had to be placed under the measuring cylinder as you can see in the diagram. Once everything is ready then add the sulphuric acid and the magnesium together, the rubber bung should then be placed on top this should be a fast process as once the acid comes in contact with the magnesium the reaction starts, so the stopwatch has to be placed on as soon as possible so that the reaction can stay inside the conical flask and so that oxygen is not able to come in contact with the magnesium other wise there would be two reactions happening. Once the reaction has started to take place one person must always hold the glass burette as it will not stand up on its own and the other person must keep a record on the time, after every 30 seconds we recorded the amount that the water had decreased by and so no until 210 seconds. This process has to repeat three more times because overall four different concentrations have to be used and at the end of each concentration what we did was we made sure we washed out the conical flask and filled up the water in the glass burette again. Below are the results of the preliminary testing: Time in seconds 100% 9:1 8:2 7:3 30 20 26 18 60 33 36 25 90 40 42 29 120 45 46 35 150 49 49 38 180 54 53 43 210 55 55 45 As you can see from the results table above the column of 7:3 is not filled up and this is due to timing we did not have enough time in the lesson to complete the full test so we had to leave it, what this informs us is that we either have to reduce the time intervals because of our intervals being 30 seconds it is taking much longer than any body else's, or we have to work at a faster rate. ...read more.

Conclusion

and 0.2g of it the reaction happened too quickly so we found the perfect balance and I do not want to experiment with that unless I have to as we have fund the perfect balance and combination. I would also keep the equipment used the same this is because I think that the equipment that we used was perfect for the experiment and each piece of equipment did the job that we wanted it to do, and all the equipment was needed so I would not be able to take anything off the apparatus list. An addition that I would make is a clamp and a grasp this would be to hold the measuring cylinder, I would add the clamp and the grasp to hold the measuring cylinder so that one person does not have to sit there all the time holding the cylinder through the whole experiment. The clamp and the grasp would make the experiment so much simpler and then one person would be free to do another task. Another thing that I would change is the stopwatch, I would change this so that we are able to set the intervals and then we are able to leave the watch and after these intervals the watch would bleep or make a noise. The reason to why I would do this is so that we do not have to keep concentrating on the time also so that it would help decrease the levels of inaccuracies this is because when we are timing the process we often go over the time limit as we are doing the process manually but if it is done computerised then these inaccuracies would sure to decrease. The new experiment: The new experiment would consist of the same method as I am not changing the whole method totally I am only changing little elements in the experiment such as the equipment. I have produced a new diagram for the experiment below: Diagram: Krina Patel Chemistry Coursework. - 1 - ...read more.

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