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Ionization energies

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Introduction

INTRODUCTION:

The ionization energy of an atom measures how strongly an atom holds its electrons.The ionization energy is the minimum energy required to remove an electron from the ground state of the remote gaseous atom

The first ionization energy, I1, is the energy needed to remove the first electron from the atom: i.e. the most loosely held electron!

Na(g) -> Na+(g) + 1e-

The second ionization energy, I2, is the energy needed to remove the next (i.e. the second) electron from the atom

Na+(g) -> Na2+(g) + 1e-

The higher

...read more.

Middle

Helium

2370

Lithium

519

Beryllium

900

Boron

799

Carbon

1090

Nitrogen

1400

Oxygen

1310

Fluorine

1680

Neon

2080

Sodium

494

Magnesium

736

Aluminum

577

Silicon

786

Phosphorous

1060

Sulphur

1000

...read more.

Conclusion

Element

lithium

Sodium

Potassium

Rubidium

Caesium

Francium

IE

520

496

403

403

376

381

image01.png

Observation: The ionization energy decreases as you go down the group.

CONCLUSION: Investigation one: As each electron is removed from an atom, the remaining ion becomes more positively charged. Moving the next electron away from the increased positive charge is very difficult and the next ionization energy is even lager.

Investigation Two: As you go down a group,the number of protons increases,as electrons are lost.

Example sodium: 11 protons, lithium: 3 protons.

 This implies that the nuclear charge is much greater, and the distance from the nucleus is much larger too. This means that the nuclear force is less, and screening (shielding) is more.

                                                                                   Alifiyah Palkhi. IB one

...read more.

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Response to the question

The candidate responds well to the question investigating a topic that is normally beyond GCSE level. The only problem is lack of scientific detail between explaining some of the trends seen in the graphs

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Response to the question

The candidate responds well to the question investigating a topic that is normally beyond GCSE level. The only problem is lack of scientific detail between explaining some of the trends seen in the graphs

Level of analysis

The candidate starts with a good definition of what an ionisation energy is. They give correct definitions of the different states of ionisation energy and good equations with state symbols. The definitions could be slightly better in chemical technical detail. The hypothesis are correct but the candidate should back them up with scientific theories and should link how ionisation energies relates to their investigation. The candidate does not account for the anomalies in the trends seen in the experiment which should be accounted for. The conclusions for each are adequate but the trends should be explained in more detail when they don't follow the general pattern.

Quality of writing

Punctuation, grammar and spelling all to a good level. The format of the essay is well set out with clear graphs.


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Reviewed by skatealexia 07/08/2012

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