Living cells

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Mary Mwage                                                                                              

Int 2 Biology

Unit: Living Cells

Class: NQ HFSP 2

3. The important part of plant cell that’s for maintaining plant structure is Cell Wall.

4. The part of cell that enables plants to perform photosynthesis is Chloroplast.

5. Yeast is a Fungus organism.

6. The products used to make yeast are: Beer-Making and Wine-Making.

7. The conditions that yeast must be kept to make these products are anaerobic conditions.

8. The organisms that make antibiotics are: The Fungus Penicillium&Antibiotic Penicillin.

9. The reason why organism makes antibiotics is because Fungi naturally produce substances that kill bacteria.

10. Bacteria can be used to make yoghurt by adding milk.

11. The substance that makes bacteria turn into milk is Lactose.

Diffusion& Osmosis

  1. Diffusion occurs when gas particles or particles dissolved in a solution spread. They move from a region where they are in high concentration to a region where they are in low concentration.
  2. The substances that move into a cell by diffusion are:
  • Oxygen
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Glucose

  1. Oxygen diffuses from the air sacs in your lungs into your blood capillaries because the concentration of oxygen is higher in the air sacs and lower in the capillary blood.


4. Osmosis is the movement of molecules from an area of high water concentration to an area of Low water concentration through a SEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE.

  1. Only water moves in Osmosis.
  2. Hypotonic solution contain Low Concentration of dissolved/Salts/ sugar &High volume of water.
  3. Hypertonic solution contains High concentration of dissolved salts/sugars and a Low volume of water.
  4. An Isotonic solution contains an equal concentration of dissolved salts/sugars to volume of water.
  5.  The concentration of plant cell that is full of water is Turgid.
  6. The name of the condition of a plant cell that has lost a lot of water is Flaccid.
  7. Water enters the cell by osmosis and the cells swell up and bursts, it swells up because the cell surface membrane is too thin and delicate to resist the pressure inside.
  8. It shrivels.
  9. When the plant cell is put in the hypotonic solution the water or fluid moves into the cell through osmosis or diffusion to get the cell and the solution to balance.
  10. It will shrivel up and shrink as its water exits the cell to try an equalize the solute outside.
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  1. Enzymes are biological catalysts: this means that they speed up the chemical reactions in living things.
  2. Enzymes are made of protein; that is why they are sensitive to heat, pH and heavy metal ions and also baking powder to make cakes and exhaust gases from cars.
  3. Enzymes act as catalysts by lowering the activation energy required for the chemical reaction to occur. However, enzymes can also be denatured due to temperature, pH, and in that case, the chemical reaction that requires that enzyme will not take place.
  4. The substance that enzymes work on is said ...

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