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Manufacture Of Iron By Blast Furnace Process.

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Manufacture Of Iron By Blast Furnace Process Iron is a naturally occurring element in its ore form (Haematite), however for iron to be of any use the impurities must be removed. This is done by a process involving a blast furnace. Extremely high temperature in the range of 870�C are reached within the blast furnace and this heat causes reactions to occur within the blast furnace that remove some of the impurities from the iron ore. The materials placed in the blast furnace are iron ore, coke and limestone. Coke is the reducing agent [substance that causes the substance it is reacting with to be reduced and in turn is oxidised], when hot air is blasted into the furnace it reacts with the coke to form carbon monoxide, this carbon monoxide then goes on to react with the iron oxides which are present in the iron ore to reduce [removal of oxygen from a substance] the oxides to metallic iron. The limestone is simply present to react with the impurities removed from the ore forming calcium silicate. Without the limestone Iron Silicate would form therefore reducing the yield of metallic iron. The Calcium Silicate and other impurities sit on top of the molten metallic iron forming a layer known as slag. ...read more.


The process used to achieve all this is called the Basic Oxygen Steelmaking Process (BOS). It is a batch proves in which 300 tonnes of high quality steel are made in about 40 minutes. The step by step stages involved are outlined below: Removing Unwanted Elements 300 tonnes of molten iron form the blast furnace are poured into a device called a ladle. Removing Sulphur Sulphur is removed first and this happens separate from the main steelmaking process. To do this several hundred kilograms of magnesium powder is injected into the ladle by a tube called a lance. By a violent exothermic reaction the sulphur reacts with the magnesium forming Magnesium Sulphide on the surface which is raked off. Mg + S --> MgS Other elements Carbon, Phosphorus and the other impurities are removed by direct oxidation [oxidation is where substances are oxidised so gain oxygen but loose electrons] C + 1/2 O2 --> CO Si + O2 --> SiO2 Mn + 1/2 O2 --> MnO 4P + 5O2 --> P4O10 Fe + 1/2 O2 --> FeO This is not a desired reaction but occris anyway. The ladle then takes the desulphrised iron to a steelmaking vessel which already contain some scrap steel. ...read more.


Mild steel is also used in the construction of car bodies. Mild steel is also used in school workshops and for engineering purposes. Stainless Steel There are different types of stainless steel but all follow a certain type of composition. They contain a maximum of 0.15% carbon, 2% manganese, 1% silicon, 0.045% phosphorus, 0.03% sulphur, 8- 14% nickel and 12-20% Chromium. The key to stainless steel being water resistant and rust resistant is the chromium in its composition. The chromium reacts with the oxygen in the atmosphere creating a thin layer of chromium contain oxygen that preventing oxygen getting to the surface of the steel and so causing rust. The result of this stainless property is that stainless steel can be used to make medical instruments that need to be sterilised Stainless steel is used wherever metal may need to come in contact with air or water. Kitchen sinks are made of stainless steel, window frames; banisters for stairs are made of stainless steel, fridge doors and in many other areas of farming and industry. Stainless steel has a wide variety of uses. Alloy Steel Alloy steels have specific compositions depending on their use. They contain carbon as well as other elements like vanadium and molybdenum. There is still large amounts of Manganese, silicon and copper in the alloy. Alloy steels are used in axles, vehicle gears, rollers and carving knives. ...read more.

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