Organic chemistry I (introduction, alkanes, alkenes,halogenoalkanes and alcohols)

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Topic 2.2: Organic chemistry I (introduction, alkanes, alkenes,

halogenoalkanes and alcohols)

            e).     Applied organic chemistry

  1. the advantage and disadvantages of liquid and gaseous fuels

e).  Applied organic chemistry

  1. the structures and properties of the polymers of simple alkanes and their uses

Polymerisation occurs when a large number of small molecules (monomers) combine with a large number of small molecules(polymer). Alkanes (and their derivatives) are used to form synthetic polymers. The high density polymer is tougher and denser because it is more crystalline.

Ethane polymerize to poly (ethane) or ‘polythene’.

It is a polymer, a very large molecule. It is made form single unit by a process of addition. [CH2 - CH2] n     is called the repeating unit.

   Polythene is a plastic material which is in everyday use for different purposes like film packing, electrical insulation and container for household chemicals. It is a very important industrial application of alkanes.

 Propene polymerizes to poly (propene)

They are capable of wide structural variation. The polymerization of propene was not commercially successful until the use of catalysts. The structural regularity is not limited to the presence of a methyl side chain on carbon atom. The methyl groups are arranged in a spiral which stiffens the structure. It allows the long molecules to line up close to one another, which increases hardness, wear-resistance, raise the softening temperature and strength of the material.

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  Poly (propene) is used to make ropes, sacking and carpets.

 Chloroethene polymerizes to Poly(chloroethene)

They are capable of wide structural variation. Poly(chloroethene) is used for plastic handbags and rainwear. They are also used to produce floor tiles. It is also used in the manufacture of electric cable, displacing rubber and cotton.

     It has also got disadvantages as an electric insulator because it can melt causing short circuit when there is electric fire and at high temperature with the presence of air, it can give rise to some toxic chlorine containing compounds.

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