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# GCSE: Electricity and Magnetism

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1. ## To show how different factors affect the resistance of a wire and to what degree

I will do three different experiments measuring resistance with length, cross-section and material. Apparatus Method (a) For experiment (a) I will change the length (cm) and measure the resistance (?). The constantan wire will be placed on a plank of wood that has a ruler on it; the wire is located directly above the ruler so you can easily find the length that you want to use. The brass rod should touch the wire at the point of the correct length so a complete circuit is made and the resistance will be measured by the ohmmeter. I will take ten results and the range between each is ten cm e.g.

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2. ## What Factors affect the resistance of a wire?

This can be illustrated using a diagram: Direction of current SMALL CROSS SECTIONAL AREA- MORE RESISTANCE Direction of current LARGER CROSS SECTIONAL AREA- LESS RESISTANCE The first diagram illustrates what happens when the cross sectional area is small, and therefore the resistance high. It shows that because it is smaller, and therefore thinner, there is not as much space for all the current to get through, and therefore there is a lot of resistance. The second diagram illustrates what happens when the wire has a large cross sectional area, it shows that twice the amount of current is able to go through, and therefore the resistance has decreased by half.

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3. ## What Factors Affect the Resistance In a piece of wire?

Material: Using different materials will affect the resistance in a piece of wire. This is because in different materials there are different numbers of free electrons to each individual atom, because different metals have different valences. Therefore if one metal for example, had more free electrons to each atom then there would be less resistance because there would be more current flowing round the circuit. I will investigate how the length of a wire affects the resistance in the wire.

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4. ## Resistance in a Constantan Wire

R=V/I. The other piece of background knowledge is to measure resistance in a circuit using a voltmeter and ammeter. This is done by: V/I=Resistance. I know that the size of the electric current flowing through a conductor all depends on the voltage across it and the resistance of the conductor (constantan wire). When the voltage is increased the electric current increases. For a specific metal conductor the electric current is directly proportional to the voltage providing of course that the temperature remains constant, which is Ohms Law. The resistance of constantan wire depends on four factors: - > 1.Temperature: If the wire is heated up the atoms in the wire will start to vibrate because of their increase in energy.

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5. ## To find how the resistance of a piece of wire depends on its length.

Now calculate average resistance using formula: R (resistance) = V (potential Difference) over I (amps) 7. Take next length and follow instructions 3 to 6 for the rest of the lengths. Fair Test: I plan to make it as fair as I can by keeping the circuit the same and so this would leave the connections the same so they wouldn't change and the circuit will be the same for every reading. I will also keep the thickness of the wire the same so the resistance didn't change with the wire.

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6. ## Investigate 2 Factors Which Affect the Resistance of a Wire

The current at any point in a circuit is the amount of charge flowing per second. Current carries electrical energy from a power supply, in this experiment it will be a power pack, to the components of the circuit. It may be either direct or alternating current. Once we have found out the voltage and current, we use this formula to find out the resistance: R=V/I Resistance is a property of a conductor that restricts the flow of electricity through it.

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7. ## Resistance Wire Investigation

Finally, after trying different types of wire we decided that a reasonably thick (size 36) chrome nickel wire would be best, due to it's reduced over-heating properties compared to thinner wires and it's durability and resistance to breaking. Apparatus The following is needed for the practical experiment: * A power pack * Voltmeter * Ammeter * Various lengths of test wire * Connecting wires * Crocodile clips * A metre rule Method We decided that to obtain enough, reliable results we needed to take readings from lengths of wire from 10cm to 100cm, at 5cm intervals (19 results in all).

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8. ## When the length of wire increases then the resistance will also increase in proportion to the length.

The material cant be used as a variable. References Letts KS4 revision guide. Co-ordinated science, Physics. Electricity in the Home. Method For my test, I have chosen to take a range of 5 lengths. I have chosen a range of 5 so that I can plot an accurate graph. I have also chosen to repeat each test 3 times and then make an average for each length. I will do this so if I get any anomalous results then they will not be noticed when I plot the graph.

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9. ## to see how the resistance of a wire changes when you change the length.

Range To collect my results I have decided to take an ammeter and voltage reading. I am going to increase the length of the wire by 10cm each time going from 10 to a 100 cm. Prediction I predict that the longer the wire the more resistance it will have. I think this because the longer the wire the more particles there are for the electrons to bang into. When the electrons bang into the particles they lose energy. Preliminary Checking that I can get a reading from the two ends of my range. I can get a reading for a 100cm, I got 0.44 amps and 1.4 volts.

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10. ## Resistance of a Wire Investigation

For example, gold has more free electrons than iron, because of this it is a better conductor. This Information is from the book 'Physics Know How'. Written by John Harrison The resistance is measured in ohms. Ohms (R) is equal to the electromotive force or potential difference, in volts (V) divided by the current in amperes (I). Atoms are made up of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by negatively charged electrons. In solids, one or two of the outer electrons in each atom are used to form the bonds between atoms that hold the solid together. These bonds are called covalent bonds.

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11. ## Resistance Investigation

In a circuit in which the potential difference, or voltage, is constant, the current may be decreased by adding more resistance or increased by removing some resistance. Ohm's law may also be expressed in terms of the electromotive force, or voltage, E, of the source of electric energy, such as a battery. For example, I = E/R. Method: The circuit was set up as shown below. A table was drawn out and the results were recorded. To improve the accuracy, I decided to set up the circuit with the wire clipped to the metre rule and as stretched as possible.

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12. ## Investigation about how different factors affect the resistance of a wire

This is because the more atoms in the wire the more chance there will be collisions between the atoms in the wire and the electrons in the current, meaning more resistance. Diagram How I will keep the experiment fair The test will be kept fair as everything will be kept the same but the variable I am testing. For example, when I am testing to discover whether the length of the wire effects the resistance, the material and width of the wire will stay the same.

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13. ## Find out the resistance of a piece of wire

* the same person reading the meters * same person measuring And we will change the length of the wire by shortening it 10cm each time. We will draw up graphs and conclusions from our results. Prediction- I predict that if the length increases then the resistance will also increase. This is because the electrical resistance and current are linked. People change the resistance to manipulate the current flow. This is why i am using the equation V=IR. This is because the longer the wire the more atoms there are to pass through.

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14. ## Resistance of a Wire Coursework

2.51 1.33 0.69 Copper 20cm 10cm 8.33 8.34 0.22 0.23 0.03 0.03 Aluminium 20cm 10cm 1.34 2.37 4.15 3.38 3.09 1.43 After obtaining these results I am now able to start planning my experiment. The metal with the biggest difference in resistance is aluminium, but the only problem with this is that at higher voltages it just melts! For this reason I will have to opt for the constantan, which has the next biggest difference in resistance. Also from these tests I have decided to use only 6 volts, because using 12 means that wire glows "yellow hot", affecting the experiment and my results, and also it would be easy to burn myself.

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15. ## Investigating factors affecting the resistance of a wire

The protons and neutrons make the nucleus of an atom while the electrons circle the outside. Electrons in metal are able to move freely and are used as current in an electric circuit. This is because they carry a charge and can move all around the circuit with this charge. While these electrons are travelling around the circuit, atoms are sometimes in the way, causing the two to collide. This takes out some of the energy from the electron and transfers it to the atom. This is how resistance occurs. When an atom has more energy it begins to vibrate and as it receives more energy, it vibrates more.

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16. ## How Does the Length of A Wire Affect Its Resistance?

Prediction: - I predict that the shorter the wire, the lower the resistance because it is only a short distance for the current to travel so the current will run smoothly and quickly. The reason I think this would happen because in Nichrome wire there is no plastic or any other type of cover, but the wire is short there may be some air resistance but not as much if the wire is long. Also with a short wire, you may notice it becoming warm, which means that the current is going fast through the wire (but some heat resistance may slow it down a bit).

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17. ## Resistance of a wire.

thick thin and medium circumferences. Electricity was supplied from a mains point,(in the form of volts) and from this high medium and low currents were passed through each of the wires. After all of the various currents had been passed through all of the wires, the resistance will be recorded using an ohm metre. After all of the initial measurements have been taken, the ohm metre will be moved 10 cm further away from the power supply for each of the wire, and will be further repeated in intervals of 10 cm to see if the length of the wire has any bearing on the resistance of the wire.

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18. ## Energy Provision In the U.K.

Its purpose is to use the tide in the Severn estuary to help generate electricity. Hydroelectric energy is also produced at Dinorwig, a power station at the top of a mountain in Wales, where the energy generation process can also work in reverse. Both of these power stations send their energy through the National Grid. Hydroelectric energy generation is a very good alternative method to fossil fuels, as it is a renewable energy source. It can reduce acid rain, reduce pollution and (in the case of the Severn Barrage) create around 8% of the United Kingdoms � energy, replacing three large power stations.

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19. ## Investigating the Resistance of Wire

Due to this the length increase should be proportional to the resistance increase. This can be proved by this equation: Resistance = Resistivity of wire x Length of wire / Cross-sectional area of wire * Wire width (SWG): If the wires width is increased the resistance will decrease. This is because of the increase in the space for the electrons to travel through. Due to this increased space between the atoms there should be less collisions. It is also relevant to know of Ohm's Law, which states that the current through a metallic conductor (e.g.

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20. ## Wire length in relation to Resistance investigation

From previous work we have found that the formula for calculating resistance is: Resistance (in ?) = voltage (in V) current (in A) The resistance should be the same for each voltage in the powerpack when the wire is the same length. However, due to human error it is possible it will not be the same for each voltage in the powerpack, so I will use a mean average of the four different voltages to work out the resistance for each length.

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21. ## An investigation intoThe resistance of a wire

Background: The flow of charge in a wire is called the current. It is expressed in terms of the number of "coulombs" per second going past a given point on a wire. One coulomb/sec equals 1 ampere (symbol A), a unit of electric current named after a French physicist. I have explained how resistance occurs above, and volts are an expression of the amount of energy being carried by the electrons flowing through a circuit. The electrons are negatively charged, and move round the circuit (from the negative side to the positive side of the battery)

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22. ## An investigation of the factors that affect the resistance of a wire

I = Current in amps (A) R= Resistance in a unit called and ohm () Preliminary testing: I have already done some preliminary investigations, testing the different types of wire such as copper and nichrome, and most importantly the length. I discovered that when altering the length of a piece of wire that if the wire length was too small then the wire would heat up. Therefore making it an unfair test as the ions would be vibrating to make it hot, and would lead in two factors being tested instead of one. As I have done more testing on length being a factor that affects the resistance of a wire, I will choose to do this as my variable factor.

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23. ## Investigating the resistance of resistance wire

I also believe that the material will alter the resistance but by how much is unpredictable. Plan 1. Make sure the equipment works. 2. Set up equipment as show in circuit diagrams - Make sure ammeter is connected in series and voltmeter is connected in parallel. 3. Turn on power source 4. Connect voltmeter, one end at 0cm and the other at 100cm 5. Take reading off of the ammeter 6. Take reading off of the voltmeter 7. Record results in the table 8.

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24. ## Ohm's Law Investigation

George ohm :Was German school teacher :Was born in 1787-died in 1854 :From 1852 until his death he was a professor of experimental physics. :The first scientist to discover the relationship that the current flowing is proportional to the voltage applied. R=V I How I will record my results. I will record my results in a table like the following with these titles. My table clearly shows how many different lengths I will use, and will repeat the experiment 3 times with each different length.

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25. ## Providing Geothermal, Biomass, Solar and Wind Energy to Ashton Island

This could all be linked up to a major generator, which would have cables running to the four wooden buildings generating heat. You could also use natural biomass in the form of wood which could be cut down into kindling You could cut down the wood and then dry it and then light it in a fireplace within the buildings to produce heat which in turn would warm up the entire buildings. A source of hot water for the buildings would be the nearby spring located on the eastern part of the island.

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