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# GCSE: Electricity and Magnetism

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Meet our team of inspirational teachers Get help from 80+ teachers and hundreds of thousands of student written documents 1.  ## Resistance of a Wire

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In a thin wire there is less space, but more resistance and in a long wire there is more space, yet less resistance. The flow of electrons: Hypothesis: Before I do my experiment I predict that the resistance in the wire will increase as the length of the wire increases. I also predict that if the resistance in the wire increases, then the thickness of the wire will decrease. My diagram of my circuit: For my first investigation task I will be doing a preliminary test to find out which are the best wires to use for my investigation.

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2.  ## Investigation of Resistance in a Nichrome 32 Wire

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The collisions that occur produce heat energy which is caused by friction. I predict that if you double the length of the wire the resistance will also double. Fair Test: To make this a fair test I will keep certain variables the same, only changing the length of wire. The variables I will keep the same consist of the power supply so I don't send more power to the electrons to go around, and temperature so that it doesn't affect the resistance of the wire because increase of the temperature increases the resistance of the wire.

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3.  ## Q. How is resistance affected by changing the length of a piece of nichrome wire in a simple circuit?

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It is a very thin wire so it slows down the flow of electrons and takes energy away from the electrons as they struggle to get through it. The energy is then changed to heat and light. Current: The flow of electrons in a circuit is called the CURRENT. Current is measured using an ammeter. Current is measured in units called AMPS. Voltage: Voltage is the amount of energy that the electrons have. It is measured using a voltmeter. Voltage is measured in units called VOLTS.

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4.  ## To investigate How the Length of Wire affects its Resistance.

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Method 1. I will set up the apparatus as shown in the circuit. 2. I will get a wire of length 20cm and connect it to a wooden ruler. 3. The first crocodile clip will be connected to the wire at 0cm. 4. The second crocodile clip will be placed at the relevant length to which I am finding out the necessary information. 5. The power supply will be turned. 6. I will the read the readings from the Volt Meter and Ammeter.

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5.  ## An investigation into the effect of temperature on a squash ball

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To judge how high the ball has bounced, I will be using my eyesight. Diagram Equipment list 4 different coloured squash balls Beaker Water bath 2, 1 meter rulers MDF Kettle Ice Thermometer Stopwatch Tongs I did a preliminary experiment to see if my method would work and if there were any problems with the way I will conduct my experiment. Preliminary Results Temperature (�C) Distanced Bounced (Cm) 90 81 40 68 0 20 Factors affecting my experiment * If I use different squash balls of different elasticity it will affect the bounciness of the ball.

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6.  ## Ionization energies

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positive charge from the nucleus remains unchanged, however, there is less repulsion between the remaining electrons INVESTIGATION: Periodic trends in ionization energies First ionization energies as a function of atomic number * 1.Within each period (row) the ionization energy typically increases with atomic number * 2.Within each group (column) the ionization energy typically decreases with increasing atomic number HYPOTHESIS: * Investigation 1: As the effective charge increases, or as the distance of the electron from the nucleus decreases, the greater the attraction between the nucleus and the electron.

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7.  ## My prediction for this experiment is that the longer the length of the wire, the higher the resistance and the shorter the length of the wire, the lower the resistance.

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Then the crocodile clips were added on the other ends of the leads. Then we moved along the 100cm wire every 20cm. We then did this three times. Results: Length of wire Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 Average Resistance (cm) R R R R 20 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.46 40 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 60 12.1 12 12 12.03 80 16.1 16 16 16.03 100 19 18.9 19 19 To find the average resistance, the equation I used was: Average = Resistance Test 1 + Resistance Test 2 + Resistance Test 3 3 Apparatus List: * 5 leads *

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8.  ## Decay of charge

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Q/C = IR (Q: charge on the capactior, I :discharge current) Q = CRI = -CR(dQ/dt) (dt/CR) = -(dQ/Q) Q = Q0e(-t/CR) (Q0 is the initial charge) The charge on the capactior decays exponentially against time. I = V/R = Q/CR = (Q0/CR) e(-t/CR) = I0 e(-t/CR) Therefore, the discharge current is also decay exponentially against time. The product of resistance and capacitance, CR, is called the time constant.

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9.  ## resistance of a wire

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There are many factors that could be taken in to account. I need to pick the right one because it is vital that I pick the correct one. The spider gram on the next page shows all the possible factors that I could use in the investigation. For the power supply in the circuit I chose to use a 24 Volt Power Pack set to A.C. 24 volts is a large voltage and I can see the changes in the readings because they are not too small.

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10.  ## electomagnet lab

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This is because; the air trapped between two turns forms an insulating barrier that doesn't allow the passage of current, if the distance was more. > Strength of the electric current: To make an electromagnet function correctly electricity has to be passed through it. Therefore if the current is increase the strength of the magnet will increase and vice versa. > Number of turns of the coil: If the number of turns on the solenoid is increased then the strength of the magnet is increased and vice versa.

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11.  ## "Making an Electromagnet"

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The next thing that the proponents did was to remove some insulation. So a pair of scissor or a cutter was used in order to remove the insulating rubber starting from each end of the wire to expose the copper wire. The wire was wrapped around the nail in a spiral manner. The proponents left enough of the wire unwound so that it can be attached to the battery. The wire was wrapped only in one direction, but with many layers.

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12. ## 'Length of Wire' Data Analysis. My results show a positive correlation between the length of the wire and the resistance

This leads to a greater amount of collisions with the electrons and the atoms increasing the resistance. Due to this the wire must be left to cool down between tests. The resistance of a circuit is often linked to a water pipe. This is known as the hydraulic analogy where each electronic component is represented by a hydraulic equivalent. Wires are represented by a pipe, current is represented by water flow rate, the analogue of voltage is the water pressure and the analogue of resistors is the flow restrictors. My results show a positive correlation between the length of the wire and the resistance as when the length of the wire increases so does the resistance.

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13. ## Physics Coursework Investigating Resistance of wires and its relationship to length.

This is shown in the diagram above. This is the basis of my investigation. The factors that alter resistance are: * The diameter of the wire - the bigger the wire the lower the resistance because there is a larger amount of space for the electrons to move which means there are less collisions with the ions. * The length of the wire - the longer the wire the higher the resistance because there is a smaller amount of space for the electrons to move which means there are more collisions with the ions.

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14.  ## Resistance of wire. My results also suggest that the resistance is directly proportional to the length of the wire.

A component will only obey Ohm's law at a constant temperature. This is because a higher temperature causes the atoms in the component to vibrate. This leads to a greater amount of collisions with the electrons and the atoms increasing the resistance. Due to this the wire must be left to cool down between tests. My results show a positive correlation between the length of the wire and the resistance as when the length of the wire increases so does the resistance.

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15. ## Experiment plan. The aim of this experiment is to investigate how the resistance of a piece of wire depends on its length, as Ohms law states.

Electrical resistance in this model The flowing electrons have to get past the positive ions in circuit, the electrons bump into the positive ions which slows them down, a reduced speed of electrons means a reduced current and a higher resistance The effect of raised temperature on resistance in this model Raised temperature on resistance in this model makes positive ions vibrate more, which will then mean more collisions between electrons and positive ions this will also means less gaps between positive ions to pass through.

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16. ## Aim: To investigate the resistance of the 3 different types of wires, constantan, copper and nichrome, by using 1 set of circuit.

Melting point is 1084.62 �C. Has high conductivity. Nichrome A nickel-chromium alloys with high electrical resistance and an ability to withstand high temperatures; used for resistance heating elements. The melting point is 1400�C. Has low conductivity. Hypothesis: I predict the copper wire has the lowest resistance. It is because as copper has higher conductivity, the current go through more smoothly so that there are less resisting occurs. Variable: Independent- Types of wire Dependent- Resistance Control variable Variable How Why Length Keep every wires in same length Because resistance change in length Diameter Keep every wires in same diameter Because resistance change in diameter Voltage (power supply)

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17.  ## Resistance Investigation. My aim in this investigation is to measure the amount of resistance in the different lengths of the wire.

However if the cross-sectional area of the wire causes the flow of the current of the electrons to retard then the resistance of the flow of electrons would increase as the electrons have less space to travel through. Another variable that could affect the resistance is the material that the wire consists of. If the wire is made of a single element then the electrons moving through the atoms will only be able to collide with the atoms of that element which would increase the flow of the current and decrease the resistance of the electrons.

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18. ## Magnetism Essay

In things that aren't magnetic, electrons send their magnetic pull in different directions, leading to failure. In metals that are magnetic, the electrons are all facing the same way. To see if a piece of metal is magnetic, you have to see if it repels another magnet, not attract. Magnets can also lose it's magnetism if it is heated. Every magnet has a north and south pole. The north pole, also known as the north-seeking pole, attracts the south pole/south-seeking pole, while it repels the same pole.

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19. ## Physics Coursework: Factors affecting resistance of a wire. Hypothesis I think that as you increase the length of the wire, you also increase the amount of resistance.

Method: 1. Collect apparatus: a voltmeter, an ammeter, 5x wires, 2 crocodile clips, 10, 20 and 40 cm of both nichrome and copper wires and a power pack. 2. Set apparatus as shown in the diagram 3. Set the power supply on a low voltage possible. (So that there is not too high a current passing through the circuit.) 4. Create a resistor by placing the ruler horizontally on the table and laying the 1 m wire on top of it use securing tape on both ends leaving just a small place to connect the voltmeter.

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20.  ## Resistance of a wire investigation.

3 Wires with crocodile clips either side Without wires there would be no connection between the wires, batteries, ammeter and Voltage meter. Ammeter Records the result of the current so I'll have to use this to record. Voltage meter Records the result of the voltage so I'll have to use this to record. Piece of wire (E.g. 30 cm Copper with a weight of 26swg) This is the main piece of the experiment as you need the material to record the result.

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21. ## Coursework for physics - resistance of a wire

It takes a short time for these electrons to collide all the way along the wire. If you add more wire, it will take longer for the current to flow through the wire. This is because there are more ions in the wire resulting in it being harder for the current to flow through an extended wire. Pre-test Equipment: * Battery pack-This will be used to supply power for the experiment/circuit * Leads-These connect up the components in the circuit * Constantan wire-this is our independent variable * Copper wire- this is our independent variable * Nichrome wire- this is our independent variable * Volt meter-This measures the volts in the circuit * Ammeter-This measures the

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22. ## AL Practical Physics Exam questions - Studying electric field between two parallel metal plates

(a) Place it mid-way between the plates and move it across the plates. The deflection remains the same except that the deflection decreases near the edge of the plates. (b) Move it parallel to the electric field. The deflection remains the same. (c) Move it very close to the plates. The deflection increases slightly since the charge on the foil attracts those of opposite charge onto the part of the plate opposite to it. (d) Move it around between the metal plates to explore the electric field. The deflection remains the same in all directions since the electric force on the foil and hence the electric field remain constant.

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23.  ## The aim of this experiment is to find out how the length of a piece of wire affects its resistance.

Copper is usually chosen for electrical wiring because it allows the flow of current and has low resistance. Procedure: We started out with a length of wire, stretching and measuring it along a meter ruler. We attached both ends of the wires connecting to an ammeter and a battery. We will be using an Ammeter to measure the amount of current flowing from the mains, which is in this case around 0.19A, we will be using a Voltmeter to measure the amount of current flowing through the wire, we will be using a Variable Resistor to keep the resistance of the circuit constant in order to keep the Ammeter from reading either higher then 1.0A and/or lower then 0.1A.

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24. ## Investigating the factors affecting the resistance in a wire

All materials have some resistance, except for superconductors, which have a resistance of zero. Objects such as wires which are designed to have low resistance so that they transfer current with the least loss of electrical energy are called conductors (see Figure 1). On the other hand, objects which are designed to have a specific resistance so that they can dissipate electrical energy or otherwise modify how a circuit behaves are called resistors (see Figure 2). Conductors are made from metals (in particular copper and aluminium)

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25. ## Resistance in a wire - investigate whether or not the length of a piece of a wire affects the resistance

This means that I can be more confident in my results because I will know that the differing current will not affect my resistance. Also, in order to get a more varied range and more reliable results I will go from 10cm of wire to 50cm. Equipment * Lead x6 * Crocodile Clips x2 * Variable Resistor x1 * Metre Ruler x1 * Power Pack x1 * 1m Nichrome wire - 32 swag x1 * Ammeter x1 * Voltmeter x1 * Calculator x1 * Cello-tape x1 Lead - To create the circuit with and to keep it complete in order to carry out the experiment.

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