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GCSE: Forces and Motion

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Balanced and unbalanced forces

1. 1 There are many words which mean force. E.g. push, pull, friction, weight, air resistance, tension, thrust. All are measured in newtons (N).
2. 2 When a body is acted on by more than one force at the same time, the overall force is called the resultant force. E.g. if a car is pushed to the right with a force of 500 N and to the left with a force of 200 N, the resultant force is 300 N.
3. 3 When the resultant force is greater than zero, the forces are unbalanced and this will cause a change in speed or direction, or both. For the example of the car, the 200 N resultant force would cause the car’s speed to increase so the car is accelerating.
4. 4 What if the brakes are applied to the car? The braking force acts in the opposite way to the direction in which the car is moving. This time the speed decreases and the car is decelerating.
5. 5 When the resultant force is zero, the forces are balanced. The body will continue to move with a constant speed in the same direction. This is true for a skydiver falling with a constant speed called the terminal speed. The air resistance is equal to the weight.

Acceleration

1. 1 When the forces on a body are unbalanced, the resultant force, F causes an acceleration, a. We can calculate the acceleration using an equation F = ma.
2. 2 In this equation m is the mass of the body measured in kilograms (kg). F is the force measured in newtons (N) and a is the acceleration measured in m/s2.
3. 3 You should practice how to write the equation in three different ways by rearranging it:

1) F = ma
2) m = F/a
3) a = F/m
4. 4 Suppose a resultant force of 20 N acts on a body giving it an acceleration of 4 m/s2. What is the mass of the body? Choose an equation for m, so we use m=F/a = 20/4 = 5N.
5. 5 A car of mass 2000 kg is acted on by a force of 500 N. What is the acceleration? Choose the equation for a, so we use a = F/m = 500/2000 = 0.25 m/s2.

Motion under gravity

1. 1 The weight of a body, W is a force and it can be calculated from the equation W=mg. g is the gravitational field strength. On Earth, g has a value of 9.81 N/kg.
2. 2 What is the weight of a mass of 20 kg? W = mg = 20 x 9.81 = 196.2 N
3. 3 On the Moon, the value of g is much smaller than on Earth , so the same body will have a smaller weight . The value of g on the Moon is about one sixth of g on Earth so the weight will be ⅙ of the weight on Earth. So the mass of a body doesn’t change when the body is moved from the Earth to the Moon but its weight changes.
4. 4 If weight is the only force acting on a body, then we can use the weight to calculate the acceleration when a body is released. What is the acceleration of an apple of mass 0.1 kg which falls from a tree? W = mg = 0.1 x 9.81 = 0.981 N. Now we can calculate the acceleration using a = F/m. (Remember that F=W) so a = 0.981/0.1 = 9.81 m/s2.
5. 5 Even if we had changed the mass of the apple to 0.2 kg, the acceleration would still be the same! The apples would hit the ground at the same time.

• Marked by Teachers essays 28
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1. Vehicle Anti-lock Braking Systems

Under these circumstances, friction opposes the movement of the vehicle?s wheels along the road. Therefore, friction decreasing when the vehicle begins to slide means less force is opposing the vehicle?s movement to slow it down, increasing the vehicle?s stopping distance[3]. The driver also becomes unable to steer as the wheels do not have enough grip on the road to turn, meaning the driver cannot veer to avoid collision (figure 1). Image result for abs braking ABS allows vehicles to stop faster whilst still maintain control of the car (the wheel?s do not lock)[4]. The driver is still able to steer by using two braking techniques; threshold and cadence braking.

• Word count: 1599
2. Engineering Analysis of the Intamin Accelerator Roller Coaster

On the back of the OTSR there are two hydraulic cylinders each side. As the rider pulls the restraints down, hydraulic fluid is 'sucked' into the cylinders. Once the OTSR are in a safe and comfortable position and they have been checked, the ride operator closes the valves which allow hydraulic fluid to both enter and leave the cylinders. The hydraulic system allows the restraints to be pulled down and locked in any position to better match a rider's body dimensions.

• Word count: 872