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GCSE: The Earth and Beyond

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 5
  • Peer Reviewed essays 24
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    Stars, Supernova and Black holes

    4 star(s)

    The sun is a star, like the other stars it is a ball of very hot gas. The sun gives us huge amounts of energy into space. The energy that keeps the sun shining is produced in its centre or core. The pressure in the core is enormous, and the temperature reaches 15 million degrees centre grade. Under these conditions, atoms of hydrogen gas join together to form another gas called helium. This process is called nuclear fusion. The sun is a very important star in the sky, the sun not only lights and heats the earth and it is in the centre of the solar system with the planets orbiting around it.

    • Word count: 809
  2. Marked by a teacher

    What do we know with absolute certainty ?

    3 star(s)

    In Southern Africa the people which lived there for their whole life don't know the true meaning of the word seasons because there are no seasons in Africa its just day and night. A similar example can be the Antarctic which is icy throughout the year and u don't notice if it is spring or summer. Another fact that we know with absolute certainty is that we cannot breathe as soon as we leave the atmosphere, but how can we really tell that we cannot breather as soon as we leave the atmosphere?

    • Word count: 614
  3. Marked by a teacher

    How Successful is Graham Greene as a story teller? Referring to both stories in your answer, indicate the one you prefer and why - I spy and All but Empty

    3 star(s)

    Greene also uses real situations that could arise such as peer pressure on the value of smoking. Also the language is correct for the early twentieth century because old-fashioned words and phrases are used. To give the correct atmosphere the writer uses words and phrases such as "the walls were dark" which creates an atmosphere when Charlie Stow is about to get up. "No sense of safety" is when Charlie is going down the stairs to the shop, when "Charlie cowered in the darkness" is when he hid under the shop counter and lay under a "haze of smoke" this describes the place where Charlie was, and you could imagine what It must have been like.

    • Word count: 640
  4. Peer reviewed

    To determine the refractive index of glass

    4 star(s)

    The table should contain 8 rows excluding the column titles. 2. The rectangular prism is placed at the middle of the top of the page and its perimeter is traced with the help of the ruler and pencil. The normal is soon after marked out in the approximate centre of the perimeter using the protractor at the 90 degrees point. The operation is then repeated at the middle of the bottom of the page and finally to the back of the page.

    • Word count: 560
  5. Peer reviewed

    Is the human race on a collision course for its own destruction’?

    4 star(s)

    This fact maybe false by religious standards but it is the most likely solution to the problem of how we came to be. For Christian people we were came to be by an omnipotent being that took out the time to create two people, Adam and Eve, and I think that this is a good example of peoples delusions of supremacy. For thousands of years now man and woman have played an overwhelming part in the development of this planet usually with the misconception that Earth is theirs and theirs alone and everything else is just here for are needs.

    • Word count: 671
  6. Peer reviewed

    The planets and the universe

    4 star(s)

    The sun was formed from a large blob at the center of a cloud. As time passed bye the sun became large enough to collect most of the hydrogen gas surrounding it and to pull smaller objects into orbit. Deep inside the blob the gases became more and more squashed. Eventually, the pressure and temperature became high enough to push hydrogen nuclei together to form helium nuclei. This process is called Nuclear Fusion and it releases a huge amount of energy. Once nuclear fusion has started, the blob had become a star-the sun. How a star is formed Stars are formed from massive clouds of dust and gas in space.

    • Word count: 945
  7. Peer reviewed

    Astronomical observation

    4 star(s)

    2.Describe the observed motion of the sun in the sky each day, and how this varies over the year, at different latitudes. From the earth the sun is seen to rise in the east, arc across the sky, and set in the west. However this is only an apparent motion, which happens because the earth spins on its axis from west to east.

    • Word count: 374
  8. Peer reviewed

    Galileo and the moon

    3 star(s)

    At first he was rejected, and a mathematician stated that the moon was covered in 'invisible, transparent, smooth crystal.' Also Galileo said that the Moon like the Earth consisted of valleys and Mountains and that the dark spots were created by the Sun producing shadows. Then using his 30x power telescope Galileo focused on Jupiter and found three stars all in a straight line to each other.

    • Word count: 464
  9. Peer reviewed

    The Life Of A Star

    3 star(s)

    Stage 2 - A region of condensing matter will begin to heat up and start to glow forming a Protostar. If a protostar contains enough matter of hydrogen the central temperature reaches 15 million degrees centigrade. Stage 3 - At this temperature, nuclear reactions in which hydrogen fuses to form helium will start. Stage 4 - The star begins to release energy, stopping it from contracting even more and causes it to shine.

    • Word count: 588
  10. Peer reviewed

    evolution of the atmosphere

    3 star(s)

    More nitrogen was also produced from the methane and ammonia reacting with oxygen. * During the last billion years or so a lot has changed. The build up of oxygen has taken place and more complex organisms are around to make use of the oxygen the ozone layer has been created which blocks the suns harmful raise. The most important change would be how the amount of carbon dioxide has decrease and there is virtually none left. Today's Atmosphere The atmosphere today is perfect for us. However there is a worry that we maybe changing it for the worst by releasing various gases from industrial activity.

    • Word count: 764
  11. Peer reviewed

    green house effect

    3 star(s)

    greenhouse effect, which results from gases emitted as a result of human activities (see also global warming, scientific opinion on climate change and attribution of recent climate change). The Basic Mechanism The Earth receives energy from the Sun in the form of radiation. To the extent that the Earth is in a steady state, the energy stored in the atmosphere and ocean does not change in time, so energy equal to the incident solar radiation must be radiated back to space.

    • Word count: 519
  12. Aim: -to explain how Einstein predicted the possibility of releasing enormous amounts of energy. -explain how scientists use theories to make predictions.

    a. how will the mass of the products compare with the mass of the uranium nucleus? The mass of the products will be less than the mass of the uranium nucleus. b.what prediction did Lise Meitner make about the amount of energy that would be released? By using Einstein's equation (E=mc�), she calculated that the fission reaction would release a million times more energy than a chemical reaction. 4. give an example, other than the special theory of relativity, of theories that can make predictions. Another very successful and strong theory is Newton's laws of motion which still continues to predict the paths of satellites and space rockets successfully.

    • Word count: 768
  13. The Solar System speech. Now when I say universe, youre probably thinking Im referring to the solar system. In fact most people would immediately suggest that the solar system is our universe.

    Even with scientists most powerful instruments,We are still limited to only view a portion of it. But despite the fact that we can only see a part of the universe, it is still an incredible achievement in science if you ask me. The universe is believed by scientists to be finite, by this I mean it definitely had a start. Now, scientists claim that in the beginning there was a big bang that started it all, but I beg to differ. I believe God created the universe and everything in it. I mean it's only common sense that nothing+nothing=nothing, so obviously there had to be something to cause that nothing to become something.

    • Word count: 836
  14. The continental conversation: the theory of continental drift

    We all know the crinkly surface Islands, where the present climate of the earth is caused by the shrinkage would have killed them off help to of the surface as it cooled down after prove his theory of continental drift.

    • Word count: 297
  15. Why we cant live on other planets

    * Scotia Plate The crust is a very thin layer made from the plate tectonics around the Earth, its equivalent in deepness from Liverpool to Manchester around 70km deep. The Mantle of Earth is chemically divided into layers, between the mantle and the crust it is viscous (a thick liquid). Earths mantle is a rocky surface and consists of 84 percent of the planets volume. The inner core of Earth is a solid layer that has a average temperature of around 5500 degrees Celsius.

    • Word count: 952
  16. Satellites Physics Coursework

    Its function, as stated, was used to broadcast television, it was also the satellite which telecasted the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo on only its first year of orbit. Another more famous satellite is the TIROS-1, considered the first successful weather satellite, it was launched on the 1st of April 1960, and had an almost circular orbit around the Earth. In its 78 days of orbit it took 22,952 images, which was extremely successful as it gave a very good view at how the weather changes from above, and was a great help in the development of other weather satellites and the way in which the weather was read.

    • Word count: 708
  17. continental drift

    * Radio active decay in the mantle produces enough heat for convection currents. * Fossils of very similar plants and animals have been found on opposite sides of the Atlantic Ocean. * The rocks match - Broad belts of rocks in Africa and South America are the same type * Continental ice sheet covered parts of South America, southern Africa, India, and southern Australia. At the time none believed his theory as: * No-one could provide a good explanation of how whole continents could move apart.

    • Word count: 578
  18. continental drift

    The rest of the Earth was covered with one huge ocean. Before Wegener's theory, it was believed mountains formed because the Earth was cooling down, and in doing so contracted. It then formed wrinkles, or mountains, in the Earth's crust. Similar to this apple. However this is not true, because if the idea was correct, mountains would be spread evenly over the Earth's surface. Wegener revealed that mountains are actually formed as the border of two drifting continents crash into each other causing one to fold in on its self.

    • Word count: 758
  19. Energy Resources

    Renewable resources are extremely expensive; however the technology is getting cheaper. For developing countries who will use the most fuel renewable forms of electricity are largely too expensive and insufficient. Wind turbines kill 1000 birds a year. Is this causing just as much damage to wildlife as climate change? A lot of money is being pumped into the research of renewable energy but is it really worth it? Technologies are advancing rapidly and there are plans to build numerous renewable energy sites all over the world.

    • Word count: 582
  20. Global Warming on Earth Physics Project

    The Government has warned about this, and unless very strict actions are put straight into action, the Earth will continue to heat up until there will be no future for mankind. If global warming continues as it has been so far, the average global temperature is estimated to increase by 0.5�C a decade. So by the end of the millennium, the average temperature will be too much for the human body to cope with. The result: mankind will die out.

    • Word count: 895
  21. How to measure density of irregular solids

    and record it 3. Place the beaker underneath of the spout of the Eureka can 4. Fill the Eureka can with distilled water until it has reached the top of the spout level and any excess water has gone into the beaker 5. Clean the beaker dry after spilling the excess water 6. Slowly dip the object into the water until it has fully immersed (avoid any movement of the object as it will cause fluctuation of the water). Do not dip excess string in the water 7. Collect the displaced water in the beaker until the last drop has come out 8.

    • Word count: 631
  22. Thickness of a wire preliminary investigation

    Apparatus Power Pack Ceramic Resistor Voltmeter Crocodile Clips Ammeter Wires, on a ruler of different thicknesses Variable Resistor Circuit Diagram Method * Collect all the equipment needed to conduct the experiment * Connect the components correctly, as shown in the circuit diagram * Test that all the apparatus works, and make sure the voltmeter is connected in parallel and that the ammeter is connected in series anywhere in the circuit. * Make sure the ammeter is connected in 1, 0, whereas the voltmeter will be connected in 1, 5.

    • Word count: 891
  23. Do all of the rules and laws governing the world really only exist in our minds? Did we really create the world through our imagination?

    Facts such as something will fall to the ground after holding it up in the air and letting go of it are what proves that these laws do not exist only in our minds but in reality, and they are what make up science. That fact causes the scientific community to ask questions and in the attempt of answering these questions the laws are born.

    • Word count: 502
  24. Green House Effect Dinosaur Extinction case Study

    According to Mclean the fateful dinosaur killer happed somewhere else on earth and is still yet to be discovered. Food Chain Destroyed Dewey McLean agrees with Walter Alvarez's theory that the asteroids debris and fires would have blocked out the suns rays resulting in what was later know as the 'Impact Winter' The earth would have been dark and cold. The cold winter climate would have been to unnatural for the plants (producer) to grow, plants were extremely important, Plants actually changed the chemical makeup of the Earth's atmosphere by giving off oxygen and absorbing carbon dioxide.

    • Word count: 457
  25. A review of the documentary "An Inconvenient Truth"

    He refers to the threat of "global warming". Director Davis Guggenheim initiated the cult movie "An inconvenient truth". Al Gore is a radical environmentalist and has attended seminars, conferences, given talks and presentations to hundreds of places all round the globe so that he could convey the immediacy and importance of global warming. In this movie, he uses his own funny and convincing style and lets the audience draw their own conclusions. What is the whole issue of global warming?

    • Word count: 509

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