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GCSE: The Earth and Beyond

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  1. Green Flash

    The green flash is a rare optical phenomenon that occurs shortly before sunrise or after sunset. Despite its name, there is no actual flash, rather it's more just like a spot of green above the sunset point or green rays that shoot up from the sunset/sunrise point. Types of green flashes. There are several quite different phenomena commonly grouped together under the name 'green flash'. Type Characteristics Conditions Best seen... Green rim Green rim can be seen at the upper rim of the sun. The lower the sun sinks the wider it gets while at the same time the lower rim of the sun turns red.

    • Word count: 2000
  2. Green House Effect Dinosaur Extinction case Study

    According to Mclean the fateful dinosaur killer happed somewhere else on earth and is still yet to be discovered. Food Chain Destroyed Dewey McLean agrees with Walter Alvarez's theory that the asteroids debris and fires would have blocked out the suns rays resulting in what was later know as the 'Impact Winter' The earth would have been dark and cold. The cold winter climate would have been to unnatural for the plants (producer) to grow, plants were extremely important, Plants actually changed the chemical makeup of the Earth's atmosphere by giving off oxygen and absorbing carbon dioxide.

    • Word count: 457
  3. A review of the documentary "An Inconvenient Truth"

    He refers to the threat of "global warming". Director Davis Guggenheim initiated the cult movie "An inconvenient truth". Al Gore is a radical environmentalist and has attended seminars, conferences, given talks and presentations to hundreds of places all round the globe so that he could convey the immediacy and importance of global warming. In this movie, he uses his own funny and convincing style and lets the audience draw their own conclusions. What is the whole issue of global warming?

    • Word count: 509
  4. life processes

    This needs several key conditions to be carried out. The planets temperature mustn't be too dissimilar to earths. Earth currently has a temperature of 13 degrees Celsius that is rapidly increasing from global warming to a temperature of 15 degrees Celsius. Therefore this planet must range from 12 - 16 degrees Celsius. Our comfortable level for our bodies is known as room temperature. Room temperature is roughly 20 degrees Celsius. As our bodies aren't very comfortable at any other temperature the 'room temperature' couldn't be easily adapted.

    • Word count: 424
  5. Global warming

    Mean temperatures over the whole planet have risen by about 0.6? C (just over 1? F) in the last 100 years. More than half of this increase has happened in the last 25 years. The temperature records used to calculate this are extensive, they have been assembled from thousands of observation sites on land and sea covering a large, representative portion of the Earth's surface. Checks and allowances have been made for any bias that may have arisen from the weather stations or instrument changes.This is a worry because

    • Word count: 536
  6. helium essay

    Just about all the helium remaining on the planet is the result of radioactive decay. While there is some helium in the atmosphere, currently its isolation from that source by liquefaction and separation of air is not normally economic. This is bacause it is easier, and cheaper, to isolate the gas from certain natural gases. Concentrations of helium in natural gas in the USA are as high as 7% and other good sources include natural gas from some sources in Poland.

    • Word count: 1723
  7. the creation story

    As it quietly spins out a day it experiences extremes in temperature from over 400�C. The goddess of love named her planet Venus she designed it to be the most beautiful making it the star of the heavens also making volcanic eruptions on the surface filled the skies with clouds of sulphuric acid like heaven. The goddess of war named her sphere mars, after collecting the blood she used in war she soaked her creation in it which therefore turned red plus the two moons of Mars, Phobos and Deimos (fear and terror) are named after the horses that pulled the chariot of the goddess of war.

    • Word count: 909
  8. Original Writing I find it hard to believe that aliens launched an attack a few days ago on earth and I never knew that they really existed. It occurred so suddenly that no one knew

    It was all horrible all I could see were bodies everywhere. The army was doing everything but it was too much the soldiers were dying one by one. The only thing I could remember was a white strobe of light like an atomic bomb and that was the last thing I remember. Now I am alone sitting and praying here thinking that someone will come and rescue me. Second Entry: May 17th 2007 One week later it is really hard for me to get those appalling and tragic images out of my head.

    • Word count: 1975
  9. Fuels What are fossil fuels? Coal, oil and natural gas are all types of fossil fuels. They are called fossil fuels

    Instead they were crushed and compressed and turned into coal. Coal is a sedimentary rock. At the start of this process in the swamp was; equal layers of rock, dead tree and sediment. Over the years it changed to; a small layer of coal and a large layer of sediment. Oil and natural gas were made in an analogous way; the only difference is they consisted of dead animals and plants in the sea. When the creatures and plants died they sank to the bottom of the sea where they were covered in sediment.

    • Word count: 820
  10. Media Course work: The Times and The Daily Star's Coverage of the Ian Huntley Conviction

    The Daily Star reports on gossip, sex and what the celebrities are up to. The paper does not have a fixed political view and this comes across in the paper. The Times on the other hand is centrist and tries to be neutral and does not have a political side. It calls Ian Huntley "Huntley" instead of using vocabulary such as monster. On the front cover of the Daily Star it has a photograph of Maxine Carr kissing a seventeen-year-old boy the same night the girls were murdered. This is a human-interest story and is vaguely linked to the trial that found Ian Huntley guilty.

    • Word count: 1730
  11. I opened my eyes. There I was, sprawled on the hard, grey coloured floor. I looked at them curiously, but something else caught my attention. A moving object was moving at a rapid speed and it was heading in my direction

    It was so unfair that I had to explore this planet instead of my friend, Menno. This was a total waste of time! I was supposed to be playing with my friends but no, I had to be exploring a planet. How interesting. We had to do a project on exploring another planet. I have no idea why we chose this planet. What was the name of this planet again? Oh yes, Earth. What a funny name! Mars is so much better. Of course its so much better, I live there! I looked around.

    • Word count: 542
  12. One of the important features of the key stage 2 astronomy is making it apparent that the students probably knew more than they believed they did, as with regards to the teaching of how the position of the sun

    The diameter of Sedna is slightly smaller than Pluto's but likely somewhat larger than Quaoar. The first stumbling block with the teaching of the subject of Astronomy is at key stage 2 the pupils are required to know the very basics regarding the solar system. At this stage it is mostly considered that a basic knowledge and an understanding of shape of the planets and their movements around the sun causing the changes in seasons is important as without this knowledge it would make the further studies and in depth analysis of further key stages impossible.

    • Word count: 1464
  13. Astronomy is my first love.

    My passion also has some roots in my love for books. I encountered a lot of science fictions, which were too a reason for my stepping beyond the realms of Earth. If I critically analyze my life, I find the entrance of Astronomy as the turning point of my life. Astronomy came as blessing, as a source of life. It showed me what life really is. Before that I was a dumb and 'good for nothing' boy. I didn't have any special interest in anything, except book reading but that alone was limited to reading the detective stories, for which now I feel that I wasted that time and money.

    • Word count: 1646
  14. Then solar system is a system comprising the sun and the astronomical bodies gravitationally bound to the Sun, the nine major planets; Mercury, Venus, earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. What

    How far are the nine planets from the sun? Mercury is the closest to the sun being 57.9 (mkl millions of kilometres) Venus is 108 mkl Earth is 149.6 mkl Mars is 227.9 mkl Jupiter is 778.3 mkl Saturn is 1427 mkl and Uranus is 2870 mkl Neptune is 4497 mkl and Pluto is 5893 millions of kilometres.

    • Word count: 448
  15. Was the moon landing faked or not, is still debatable until today.

    They would need ten inches of lead to absorb most of the radiation (Cosnette 2005). As a conclusion, the moon landings are faked because the evidences supporting the moon landing are not as convincing as the arguments proving the moon landing is a fake. 1.0 Introduction 1.0 Introduction Since the olden days, mankind has always been determined to conquer all frontiers. With mysteries of the galaxy around us, it is no wonder that mankind would eventually plan a space exploration. This takes us to about forty years ago when NASA made the first moon landing on the 20th of July 1969 (Mackay, 2004).

    • Word count: 2903
  16. When a supernova explosion occurs, we would see; a bright flash of light (about a billion times brighter than the sun) lasting for a few months, an expanding cloud of gas which appears years later and expands rapidly from the site of the explosion, the c

    of star formation in neighboring clouds of gas as the expanding debris "snow plows" through them, and the production of stellar crumbs in the form of a black hole.

    • Word count: 261
  17. Global Warming Our planet's atmosphere traps energy just like a greenhouse. Energy from the Sun can enter the Earth's

    However, too many greenhouse gases can cause the temperature to increase out of control. Such is the case on Venus where greenhouse gases are abundant and the average temperature at the surface is more than 855 degrees Fahrenheit (457 degrees Celsius). We have increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels, such as coal, oil and petrol. Cows, rice fields and rubbish rotting in landfill sites produce methane, and aerosols and fridges use CFCs. The removal of trees - deforestation - is also thought to increase the greenhouse effect.

    • Word count: 1581
  18. The origin of life

    Although they follow science on the earths age they believe that the earth was created as described in genesis. However they believe that the six days creation described in the bible in fact was stretched over a large period of time. Creation science is of course all based around Christianity there are of course many other religions which in turn all have their own creation beliefs. 2) Scientific views This as the name suggests is the belief that life originated by a number of scientific processes and there was no input from a god of any kind at all.

    • Word count: 891
  19. Would Using alternative sources or energy dramatically reduce the need to burn fossil fuels and risk of global warming?

    and oceans organisms).Through photosynthesis, forests are able to absorb and store large amounts of CO2 in their structures; individually they absorb around 13 pounds of CO2 per year and one acre of forest absorbs about 2.8 tons of CO2. When forests are cleared or burnt CO2, methane and nitrous oxide are released into the atmosphere. Each year, deforestation contributes 23-30 percent of overall CO2 in the atmosphere by countries such as Brazil, Indonesia, Burma, Mexico and Thailand. Therefore, while more and more carbon dioxide is being released into the atmosphere, there are less and less forests to remove it.

    • Word count: 1933
  20. Consider The Opening Scenes Of 'The Matrix'. How Is A Tense Gripping Atmosphere Created?

    Meanwhile one of the people is sceptical of this. This creates a gripping atmosphere as it makes the viewer wonder who they are talking about, and why he is being referred to as 'the one'. At the start of 'The Matrix' there is a black background with green digits on it. The background makes the digits stand out and seem more vibrant. The first shot after the digits show a beam of light being shone directly into the camera. The camera then rotates and a dark corridor is shown, with the only light in it coming from the torches of the police officers.

    • Word count: 791
  21. The Earth is surrounded by a covering of air which we call the atmosphere.

    The pie chart refers to the atmosphere today but it was not always made up of these percentages. It seems that carbon dioxide levels have raised a lot and these rises may be down to many causes such as the industrial revolution and constant deforestation. Natural functions of the atmosphere The atmosphere is vital for life and acts as a life support system to all living things, and the atmosphere helps keep the environment stable for life and has been for billions of years.

    • Word count: 627
  22. Do higher Carbon Dioxide levels lead to warmer conditions?

    It also has direct consequences for the atmosphere around us and around in our habitats. It will be too hot for our food to grow properly so we won't be able to have the correct diet. The gases which form the atmosphere are called greenhouse gases, as they form a green house effect by trapping the hot air in. Hypothesis. As carbon dioxide is classed as a greenhouse gas, I would expect the temperature in the bottle filled with carbon dioxide to be warmer than the one filled with regular air and to cool down slower.

    • Word count: 608
  23. The Plight of the Tierzans

    His companion checked his computer. "He's Zorban's son." "You just wait", protested the first. "That's the cry of a great warrior." Moving to the engraved capsule he murmured, "Rugald: remember that name." * * * Five soldiers sat within a crater, battered and bruised from destroying a city. "Zorban actually remembers everything!" "Don't make me laugh", Taura mused. "Zorban might remember every second of every battle, but nothing of his personal life! Allow me to demonstrate. Zorban, do you remember when your son was born?" "No, but that was a long time ago." "It was only yesterday. Come on you need to go and see the little tyke.

    • Word count: 1211
  24. The Atmosphere

    o Atmospheric composition has changed over time through volcanism and humans o Current threats to atmosphere; * C02 emissions contributing to global warming * Hole in the ozone layer * Acid rain from carbon monoxide/ sulphur oxide emissions Structure of the Atmosphere - Troposphere closest to surface o 5-16km thick (thinner at poles and equator)

    • Word count: 330
  25. Training programme to help develop my performance in rugby at the position of flanker.

    CFCs are suitable because they are non-toxic, non-flammable, non corrosive and non-reactive with other chemical compounds. During the late 1950s and early 1960s the CFCs made possible an inexpensive solution to the desire for air conditioning in many automobiles, homes, and office buildings. Later, the growth in CFCs use took off worldwide with peak, annual sales of about a billion dollars (U.S.) and more than one million metric tons of CFCs produced. These safety characteristics, along with desirable thermal-conductivity and boiling point characteristics are the which features led to increased demand and made them ideal for all the uses listed above.

    • Word count: 1216

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