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GCSE: The Earth and Beyond

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  1. The Solar System.

    The planets are much smaller than the Sun and shine by reflecting the Sun's light. In order of distance from the Sun, the planets are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto. All of the planets travel in the same direction around the Sun in approximately circular paths. The planets fall into two general composition types: terrestrial and gas. The terrestrial planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars. Generally, they are small, rocky bodies (lots of materials made of the elements silicon, oxygen, aluminium, magnesium, sulphur and iron) with thin atmospheres. The gas planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are large, gas and liquid bodies with thick deep hydrogen-rich atmospheres and probably no 'real surface'.

    • Word count: 741
  2. The Greenhouse Effect and the Ozone Layer.

    To understand what controls temperature on earth, we have to understand the Greenhouse effect. There is now evidence that over the last 50 years, most of the warming is attributable to human activities. "Human activities have altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere through the build up of Greenhouse gases-primarily, Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Nitrous Oxides"(yosemite.epa.gov/globalwarming). The earth's atmosphere acts like a greenhouse with these gases. Sunlight comes through the atmosphere and reaches the earth. The invisible infra red radiation is reflected back into space, but some gases known as the Greenhouse Gases, don't let the radiation escape but reflect it back to earth, and this is how the earth is warming up, this is illustrated in the picture below.

    • Word count: 1072
  3. The Moon.

    It is the only extraterrestrial body to have been visited by humans . The first landing was on July 20, 1969 (do you remember where you were?); the last was in December 1972. The Moon is also the only body from which samples have been returned to Earth. In the summer of 1994, the Moon was very extensively mapped by the little spacecraft Clementine . Lunar Prospector is now in orbit around the Moon. The gravitational forces between the Earth and the Moon cause some interesting effects. The most obvious is the tides.

    • Word count: 1449
  4. Misconceptions - Earth in Space.

    What sort of shape do you think the Earth is? 2. Have you heard people say that the Earth is round? Do you think they mean round like a football or round like a CD? 3. Can you draw what you think the Earth is like? 4. Can you draw some people standing on the Earth, for example in England or at the North Pole? 5. Can you draw another person standing on the other side of the Earth, for example in Australia?

    • Word count: 660
  5. Compare and Contrast the Atmosphere in The Lady Of Shalott and Morte d 'Arthur by Lord Tennyson.

    Once again her sad mood is reflected in the landscape. This compares to the landscape in Morte d 'Arthur where the landscape is very painful and harsh, "Dark strait of barren land" This line contrasts with the fertile land in The Lady of Shalott, which makes the atmosphere in Morte d 'Arthur very sad and desolate. Unlike The Lady of Shalott, Morte d' Arthur indicates straightaway that this a tragic story. The landscape is very threatening so the reader can picture what is happening in the story.

    • Word count: 1622
  6. How can we be sure that global warming is happening?

    This shows that humans are definitely contributing to these greenhouse gases by burning fossil fuels and increased use of industrial processes. This is a terrifying problem. If the temperature increases any more, even by 0.5�c the effects could be catastrophic. Even though you may think that this rise is miniscule, it could cause worldwide panic. This has knock on effects all around the world. This could cause the polar ice caps to melt and this would increase the world's sea levels dramatically.

    • Word count: 929
  7. Megz - The Strange Planet.

    On this part of the planet, the people usually commit crime and suicide so it is not unusual if you see a dead aliana in the slime, which lies beneath your feet. The front of the planet is a child's world, which is full of the things that the children love playing with, but these things are not like the ones earth children like playing with but are different, for e.g. there is a triangle pit full of yellow slime which stinks of boiled eggs!!

    • Word count: 765
  8. Finite Oceans.

    Disinfectants and bleachers are halogens that also cause problems. Examples include: Florine, Chlorine, Bromine, and Adenine. All of these are very useful, but they have very dangerous side effects that affect many animals and humans. For example, a very powerful insect repellent called DDT was designed and created to kill annoying bugs. As these chemicals combine with the air molecules, they eventually go into oceans and seas around the world. When we eat the fish from the oceans, we are also consuming the chemicals that are in the water.

    • Word count: 483
  9. Greenhouse Effect.

    Heat is trapped. What Are Greenhouse Gases? Many chemical compounds found in the Earth's atmosphere act as "greenhouse gases." These gases allow sunlight, which is radiated in the visible and ultraviolet spectra, to enter the atmosphere unimpeded. When it strikes the Earth's surface, some of the sunlight is reflected as infrared radiation (heat). Greenhouse gases tend to absorb this infrared radiation as it is reflected back towards space, trapping the heat in the atmosphere. Greenhouse effect described by BBC Broadcast Meteorologist Helen Willetts: Like our day-to-day weather, climate change is a very complex subject. The media provides us with reports about global warming but it can be difficult to form an objective opinion when other scientists put forward what look like opposing views.

    • Word count: 3324
  10. The Earth; Our Comrade.

    The fear of death is a huge fear that cannot be overcome. The element of chance plays a large part in who lives and who dies in the war. The soldiers know this and just hope they are not the next to be killed. They turn to the earth for comfort, because there is nothing else they can turn to. It offers them something that cannot be taken away from them. When the soldiers are scared they bury their face in it, when they are being shot at they hide behind it for protection.

    • Word count: 813
  11. The life cycle of a star.

    for it to start generating energy, by nuclear fusion - combining hydrogen atoms to form a heavier element, helium. Energy is released from the core, and pushes its way out through the rest of the star, creating an outward pressure which stops the star's collapse. When the energy emerges from the star, it is in the form of light, and the star has begun to shine. A Star is formed from a cloud of gas, mostly hydrogen, and the dust that is initially spread over a huge volume, but which is pulled together by its own collective gravity. This gravitational collapse of the cloud creates a body of large density, and the loss of gravitational potential energy in the process is very large indeed.

    • Word count: 3274
  12. Describe and explain the long-term effects of large-scale deforestation on the earth's atmosphere.

    Commercial logging is another common form of deforestation, cutting trees for sale as timber or pulp. Logging can occur selectively-where only the economically valuable species are cut-or by clear cutting, where all the trees are cut. Commercial logging uses heavy machinery, such as bulldozers, road graders, and log skidders, to remove cut trees and build roads, which is just as damaging to a forest overall as the chainsaws are to the individual trees. These machines not only contribute to the clearing of forests but they also damage the wildlife in the area, the loud noise and human talk, will inevitable petrify the birds, insects, and larger animals such as monkeys, millions of different varieties of animals are killed each year by this process.

    • Word count: 3986
  13. The Solar System.

    Other satellites, such as the Hubble telescope, are designed to make observations of the rest of the solar system and beyond. *Geostationary orbit: A circular orbit in the equatorial plane, any point on which revolves about the Earth in the same direction and with the same period as the Earth's rotation. *Polar orbit: An orbit for which the angle of inclination is 90o. Note: A satellite in polar orbit will pass over both the north and south geographic poles once per orbit.

    • Word count: 585
  14. What is a Diamond and where are they found?

    * * Diamond is transparent over a larger range of wavelengths (from the ultraviolet into the far infrared) than is any other substance. * Diamond is a good thermal conductor, better than any other- five times better than the second best element, Silver. * Diamond has the highest melting point (3820 degrees Kelvin) * The lattice arrangement of atoms in Diamond are packed closer together than in the atoms of any other substance. * Diamond fractures along a specific plane when hit but it cannot be compressed. Carbon exists in two allotropic forms:(1) CRYSTALLINE FORM (2) AMORPHOUS FORM There are three allotrope forms of carbon which are the crystalline forms, these are: (1)

    • Word count: 1965
  15. In the beginning God created the Heavens and the Earth.

    When we discuss this topic, there are so many things we cannot know, cannot test, cannot prove, cannot repeat, that we have to accept them at face value. The crucial thing is to understand the value, then we will be able to accept what we cannot prove, where it is consistent with the value. We move into the realms of faith. We make no apology for thinking of this subject in terms of faith where others may require hard and incontrovertible facts.

    • Word count: 5478
  16. The shorn Dream Planet X with Doctor Du and Larry the master.

    'Fill that space, sir, there is a lot of resistance in the way to the earth, as Shorn put the fuel higher the laser beamed towards earth started to go stronger the angle started to point towards earth. Doctor Du what was in the chemical one said there was a substance that had Co2 in it that can make earth loose all there energy. On the other side Shorn was getting ready to go into the cockpit, he gave the ignition, the engine of the F-1 one growled out in its flames, blasting off in his F-1 concept flight towards earth with chemical ready to flush the earth in to his power, wonting to be in power off earth.

    • Word count: 713
  17. Conscience as clear as crystal.

    Though, pain from experiences can make us stronger and stop us from making the same mistakes again... The fae was perfectly adapted to cope with the chill morning atmosphere with her extremely thick snowy pelt. Like a luxurious fur coat to a human, this was a rare commodity for a wolven of the Centre lands and something that she was most grateful for. A large gash on her foreleg had left naught but a scar. No longer did the actual wound pain her, but the sight of it still brought back painful memories. The small area of exposed flesh was the only part of her sensitive skin that was uncovered by a layer of thick fur and

    • Word count: 1085
  18. The Origins of the Earth.

    This was approximately 15 billion years ago. So that's the theories on the universe. What about the Earth? The Origins of the Earth and Atmosphere The Solar System was created when pods of swirling gases and dust formed together and grew by attracting nearby particles of matter. This then developed into the planets which travel around the Sun. The Earth began as dust and planetismals which was drawn together by gravity. About 4-3.5 billion years ago, the earth was covered oceans and volcanoes.

    • Word count: 1262
  19. Uranus is the seventh planet from the sun in our solar system.

    in diameter. This is about 4 times the diameter of the Earth. This gas giant is the third-largest planet in our Solar System (After Jupiter and Saturn). Mass And Gravity: Uranus mass is about 8.68 x 10 Kg. This is about 14 times the mass of the Earth. The gravity on Uranus is only 91% of the gravity on Earth. This is because it is such a large planet (and the gravitational force a planet exerts upon an object at the planet's surface is proportional to its mass and to the inverse of its radius squared).

    • Word count: 705
  20. Mercury is the second smallest planet in our solar system, (after Pluto) and is about 3,031 miles (4,878 km) in diameter.

    Seasons are caused by the tilt of the axis relative to the planet's orbit. Since Mercury's axis is directly perpendicular to its motion (not tilted) it has no seasons. If one were standing on the surface of the mercury, the sun would look almost three times as big as it does from Earth. Surface, Mars And Gravity Of Mercury: Mercury is a heavily cratered planet and its surfaced is similar to the surface of Earth's Moon catering on Mercury triggered a Volcanic eruptions that filled much of the surrounding area. Mercury does have a magnetic field (probably generated by a partly liquid iron-core).

    • Word count: 805
  21. The Solar System.

    Moons Moons rotate around their parent planet. Earth has on emoon, but some planets have over 30. only Mercury and Venus do not have any moons. Mercury - No Moons Venus - No Moons Earth - Moon Mars - Phobos, Deimos Jupiter - Io, Callisto, Ganymede, Europa Saturn - Titan, Mimas, Dione, Iapetus, Enceladus Uranus - Oberon, Ariel, Miranda, Titania, Umbriel Neptune - Triton Pluto - Charon The relationship between the number of moons and the planet size is that the bigger the planet the more moons it seems to have.

    • Word count: 1442
  22. The Solar System.

    Experience the longest day of any planet, a staggering 243 Earth days! ? The only planet where the Sun rises in the west and sets in the east ? See volcanoes 100km wide and five km high ? Poisonous Venusian atmosphere - it's full of sulphuric acid NUMBER OF MOONS � 0 Earth DEFINITION The third planet from the Sun, placed between Venus and Mars ?

    • Word count: 513
  23. Killing her softly with our selfishness!

    for grazing land for cattle for our fast food restaurants it will become impossible to get rid of! Even the carbon dioxide we breathe out will cause that little bit more of a problem for the earth! This obviously isn't the only poison we continuously threaten Mother Nature with by burning fossil fuels and with nearly all the other substances comes another big problem. ACID KILLS! Burning fossil fuels also releases Sulphur Dioxide and Nitrogen oxide, these both make acid rain and trust me it doesn't take much!

    • Word count: 871
  24. What is Global Warming?

    Scientists are concerned about the Global Warming caused by human activities because they produce the climate change. The current average global temperature is about 57 degrees F (14 degrees C). If the temperature rises in the average then it means that we are having global warming. A 100 years ago till now, our average temperature has rose less than 1 degree.

    • Word count: 354
  25. Planet Earth: Doomed.

    But, this time, the financiers thought that they wouldn't make the same mistake those 'primitive' people did with that power. But nuclear weapons were useless, double-edged things as far as the financiers were concerned because since then, another awesome power was discovered, a much more efficient, clean power. A scientist in this project, named 'Cyross'. He was a master in science but that was not his original profession, During Cyross's reign, his people looked up to him, in him, they saw honor, strength, wisdom and integrity.

    • Word count: 1083

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