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GCSE: Waves

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 11
  • Peer Reviewed essays 13
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    refraction experiment

    4 star(s)

    The radiation rebounds from a barrier in its path without a change in speed. > Normal line: A line perpendicular to the surface at the point where a ray of light strikes. > Incident Ray: A ray which impinges upon a surface. > Refracted Ray: a ray that has changed direction after crossing from one media to another, in which the speed is different. > Emergent ray: the light ray leaving a medium in contrast to the entering or incident ray. > Angle of incidence: the angle between the incident ray and a normal.

    • Word count: 1022
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Find the critical angle and refractive index for plastic using a graphical treatment for my results.

    4 star(s)

    Angle of incidence (I): Angle between incidence ray and normal at point of incidence. Point of incidence: Point at which incident ray meets boundary and becomes refracted ray. Critical angle: The particular angle of incidence of a ray hitting a less dense medium, which results in it being refracted at 900 to the normal. Normal: A line at right angles to boundary through chosen points. There are two main laws of refraction of light: 1. The refracted ray lies in the same plane as the incident ray and normal at the point of incidence.

    • Word count: 1127
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Investigation to find the change in the speed of light through perspex.

    4 star(s)

    a and refraction ? b and the refractive indices na and nb of the media are related through what has become known as Snell's Law: Snell's Law = the refractive index of the medium light is passing into the refractive index of the medium light is passing out of = Sin(i)/Sin(r). Apparatus Perspex block (semi-circular) Protractor sheet (A4) Lens Collimator Optical pins Power pack Method * First we gathered all the required equipment. * Then we set it up by placing the perspex d-block on the A4 protractor paper and plugged in the ray box into the mains.

    • Word count: 1374
  4. Marked by a teacher

    An investigation into the factors affecting the frequency of a standing wave

    4 star(s)

    I have decided to investigate the effect that altering the length of string along which the wave travels. From the above equations, I would expect the frequency to be inversely proportional to the length of string, as you would create a shorter wavelength when the string is shorter, and the speed can be kept constant. Because I am only investigating the change in frequency caused by a change in length of the string, both the tension and the mass per unit length of the strength need to be kept the same to get accurate results. Method To keep the Mass per unit length of wire the same, I am going to use the same piece of constantan wire for all my results, which has a mass per unit length of 32 (swp).

    • Word count: 1375
  5. Peer reviewed

    Graphs illustrating variants of y = sin x.

    5 star(s)

    By doing this we are taking A<0. Graph 5 Graph 5 shows us that the wave flips around when A is negative. So we can conclude that when A<0 the wave will always be upside down From investigating graphs of y = Asin x, we can conclude that when the A is less than 1 then the wave compresses vertically and when A is greater than 1 the wave expands vertically. If A is less than 0, then the whole wave flips upside down.

    • Word count: 1010
  6. Peer reviewed

    What Is Fibre Optics

    5 star(s)

    This angle is called the angle of Total Reflection. Fibre Optics uses this simple principle for transmission. The core of the fibre optics cable, which is made of glass, has a higher index of refraction than the index of the cladding, which covers this core. So when light is injected into the glass core at the correct angle, it will reflect back from the surface and continue doing this in its forward direction of travel. In other words the light cannot "escape" from the fibre. COMPONENTS OF A FIBRE OPTICS SYSTEM The use of fibre optics is extensive, but the components used to make up a system are usually similar.

    • Word count: 1147
  7. Peer reviewed

    Mobile Phone case study

    4 star(s)

    Macrocells are the largest type of base stations and provide the main coverage for mobile phone networks. Its antennas can be mounted on ground-based masts, rooftops or other structures and must be high enough to avoid obstruction. Macrocells provide radio coverage over different distances, depending on the frequency used, the number of calls being made and the surrounding environment. Microcells are used to improve capacity in areas where mobile phone communication is frequent, such as shopping centres. The antennas for microcells are mounted at street level. They are smaller than macrocell antennas and can usually be disguised, so that they are less obvious, in case of vandalism.

    • Word count: 1413
  8. Peer reviewed

    How does the number of coils on an electromagnet affect its strength?

    4 star(s)

    The more induced voltage, the stronger the electromagnet. An alternative way to strengthen an electromagnet is to replace the core with a "soft" iron core. Prediction: - An increase in the number of coils applied to the iron nail will cause an increase in the number of paperclips being picked up. (a positive correlation between the two variables) This prediction derived from the scientific knowledge above - 'Therefore, the more turns of the coil you have, the greater the magnetic field and the stronger the electromagnet.' Apparatus: - Iron nail (1)

    • Word count: 1038
  9. Peer reviewed

    Experiment to investigate the relationship between speed and depth for a water wave.

    4 star(s)

    For my preliminary work, I did the experiment and tested that a wave would be able to be created. The preliminary work brought up the problem of how high the wooden block should be held up before it is swung into the water, it was decided that it should be swung from about 4cm above the bottom of the guttering. Safety Precautions: Even though safety is a virtue the experiment being conducted is a relatively safe one. The only major danger is slipping on the water, which has been spilled, and so when water is spilled the water is cleaned up immediately.

    • Word count: 1006
  10. Free essay

    Do mobile phones adversly affect our health? - Case study

    3 star(s)

    Radio waves are the second weakest type of wave, so would not create much of a risk to the human body, albeit affect the tissue slightly. There is a diagram of the electromagnetic spectrum on the next page. "Mobile phones connect to the base station providing the best signal - usually the nearest. As a person moves away from the base station the signal becomes weaker, so the mobile phone automatically adjusts its own RF field strength to maintain the minimum level needed to communicate with the base station."

    • Word count: 1143
  11. Properties of waves

    Tsunami- a huge ocean wave caused by earthquakes a. A tsunami may be as high as 30 meters when it reaches the shore 1. such waves carry enough energy to cause a lot of damage to costal towns and shore lines V. Energy may spread out as a wave travels i. when you are standing next to the speakers at a rock concert, the sound will damage your ears, however if you 100m from them, the sound is not as loud a.

    • Word count: 1741
  12. Sunbathing A danger to your health, physics coursework

    The sections are divided by how energetic the ultraviolet radiation is. Some materials will absorb the energy from ultraviolet waves and emit the energy as visible light. These materials are called fluorescent and are used for fluorescent lighting (sometimes called strip lighting) and security marking. The sun emits UV light which causes the skin to tan. Sun beds use fluorescent lighting to emit ultraviolet light to create an artificial tan. Sunbathing- Effects on the body Sunbathing has many different effects on the body both positive and negative. Positive The healing power of the sun was acknowledged by ancient civilisations long before we had identified UV rays.

    • Word count: 1064
  13. Wave P0wer in britain

    Most of the energy stored in waves arises from kinetic energy; this is due to the wave having a great mass, as water is very heavy and also the speed at the waves travel. However it is possible to get power from the potential energy in waves, this will be discussed later on. Looking at Figure 1 you can see how waves develop and how they have the potential to create lots of energy. However Waves are not as consistent as the tide and therefore there is a definite problem with matching supply and demand.

    • Word count: 1958
  14. Refractrometry. Aim: Using a model Pulfrich refractometer determine the refractive index of a range of sugar solutions and hence determine the refractive index of some sugar solutions with an unknown concentration.

    I predict that my graph will be proportional. This because the refractive index is proportional to the specific gravity of a concentration, which is directly proportional to concentration. Therefore my graph will appear similar as below: Apparatus: * Rectangular Perspex block * Several sheets of blank white A4 paper * Pin board * 2 tall pins * Black paper * Range of sugar concentrations * Sharp pencil * Protractor In my apparatus I have made steps to improve the sensitivity and accuracy of this investigation.

    • Word count: 1494
  15. Carry out an experiment to find a relationship between the incident angle and the refracted angle when light is shone through a rectangular Perspex block.

    This causes the light to bend towards the normal until both edges are travelling at the same speed. The normal is the line from where the angled are measured. Diagram showing the refraction of light. Planning of the experiment Aim of experiment I am going to carry out an experiment to find a relationship between the incident angle and the refracted angle when light is shone through a rectangular Perspex block. Equipment used For this experiment I will need: * A light box. * A light slit. * A rectangular Perspex block. * A power pack. * A protractor.

    • Word count: 1347
  16. The aim of this experiment is to investigate the relationship between the length of a closed tube and the frequency of the lowest fundamental note.

    This is the fundamental note, the lowest and loudest note possible at a certain frequency. It is produced by a standing wave being setup in the tube, these occur when the outgoing wave, and the wave that is returning from the end of the tube mirror each other and for this to happen the wave has to be reflected at the right point in its wavelength. Fair test: To try and keep this experiment fair the only equipment that will be changed is the ones that control the two variables - the signal generator controlling the frequency and the position of the tube controlling the length.

    • Word count: 1052
  17. Investigate how the speed of light differs in air and in Perspex.

    Diamond has a very high refractive index this is responsible for it having such a aparkle. Apparatus Lab pack D-block Ray Box Glass lens Collimator Prediction I Predict that the speed of light in Perspex multiplied by the refractive index of Perspex (1.49) will equal the speed of light in air. I am able to draw up a triangle formula for my prediction. (fig 1) But in our experiment we are shining the ray onto the curved surface and seeing how light goes from Perspex into air so we will attempt to work out sin I over Sin R and multiply it by the speed of light in air to get the speed of light in Perspex.

    • Word count: 1483
  18. Investigation of electromagnetism

    Turn on your electromagnet and pick up as many filings it will hold. 4. Keeping the electromagnet on, move it over to the weighed paper and turn the power off- the filings will fall onto the weighed paper. 5. Reweigh the paper and calculate the mass of the filings picked up, by subtracting the mass of the paper. Investigating the number of turns on the strength of the electromagnet, this experiment is to find out more about the effect of number of turns on electromagnetism.

    • Word count: 1329
  19. Effect of Underwater Acoustics on Whales.

    In addition, smaller whales have a broader range from which they can hear from 10 up to 300Hz. (Unknown2, 2002) Whales depend on sound for communication, navigation, and even detection of predators and prey. The seismic-generated sound waves may disturb critical abilities. Disruption of any of their vital functions can significantly disturb the fitness of whales. (Unknown3) There are many factors that affect the communication abilities of the whales. Temperature and pressure variations found at the varying depths of the oceans can act as voice tubes and channel whale calls further than usual, which allows for whales on the other side of the ocean to hear the calls.

    • Word count: 1995
  20. Find a relationship between the angles of incidence and the angles of refraction by obtaining a set of readings for the angles of incidence and refraction as a light ray passes from air into perspex.

    light is entering, sin 2 is the is the incident angle between the light ray and the normal to the medium to medium interface, sin 1 is the refractive angle between the light ray and the normal to the medium to medium interface. Definitions: Angle of incidence: The angle made between an incident ray and the normal to the surface that it strikes. Angle of refraction: The angle made between the reflected ray and the normal to the surface that it strikes.

    • Word count: 1773
  21. How Does the Number of Coils On An Electromagnet Affect Its Strength?

    The electromagnet will become stronger if we add more coils because this is generating more field lines over a wider area compared to a straight piece of wire. Method 1. Connect everything together and put the voltage on the power pack to 4V 2. Wrap the coil around the iron nail 10 times and turn the power supply on 3. See how many paper clips it picks up then turn the power pack off 4. Count how many paperclips it has picked up and record in a table 5.

    • Word count: 1148
  22. Investigate the factors that affect the Strength of an Electromagnet.

    > I will also repeat the whole experiment once more for fairness. DIAGRAM: Method I will take the iron nail and wind the wire around it, leaving the two ends of the wire free. Sorbh Bhushan I will Clamp up the nail and plug two crocodile clip leads into the Power pack and attach each crocodile clip to a different end of the wire, which is wound around the nail. I will turn on the power to the required voltage and then put the paper clip up so that they are touching the iron nail.

    • Word count: 1023
  23. An Experiment to investigate the change of speed of light through perspex.

    a and refraction ? b and the refractive indices na and nb of the media are related through what has become known as Snell's Law: Equation na Sin ? a = nb Sin ? b Prediction My first prediction is that the angle of incidence will be 2/3 of the angle of refraction. This is because sin I divided sin r is the refractive index, which should be 0.66. Also to back up my prediction I did a preliminary experiment, but instead we put the ray of light through the flat surface of the D-block.

    • Word count: 1066
  24. Investigating light and refraction using a glass block.

    This makes the ray of light turn like a tank, therefore refracting it. Statement of intent I plan to change the angle of incidence as the rays of light enter a glass blocks and record the angle of incidence and refraction to see how they effect each other. Prediction I predict that whatever the angle of incidence is, it will be larger then the angle of refraction because the light will be entering something denser, so the wave nearest the "normal" will enter the block first, causing the ray to turn towards the normal, reducing the angle size.

    • Word count: 1336
  25. Physics Laboratory - "Waves in Strings".

    1.72 0.990 0.542 0.383 The Inverse of the Square Root of Force (to 3 s.f.) 0.582 1.01 1.84 2.61 2.), 5.) See attached sheets please. B.1.) There is a clear relationship between the number of harmonics and the force pulling on the string. As the harmonics increase the mass hanging decreases exponentially. 2.) See graph for working out. Our graph starts from the second harmonic, since we only got results starting from the second one. It is quite clear, just by looking at the graph that it is exponential and if you continue the line beyond what the graph shows us, you can estimate what force would be needed for the 1st harmonic.

    • Word count: 1013

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