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GCSE: Waves

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 11
  • Peer Reviewed essays 13
  1. Marked by a teacher

    Is Sunbathing Good?

    4 star(s)

    This produces certain chemicals called 'tryptamines' which improve our mood The sun can be bad for you because... There are also many reasons why the sun can be bad for you, e.g: * Exposure to solar and artificial UV radiation is widely recognized as a leading and preventable cause of skin cancer. * Exposure to high levels of sunlight, makes it four times more likely for you to develop cataracts in your eyes. * Sunburn can change the distribution and function of disease-fighting white blood cells and damage our DNA.

    • Word count: 2864
  2. Marked by a teacher

    refraction experiment

    4 star(s)

    The radiation rebounds from a barrier in its path without a change in speed. > Normal line: A line perpendicular to the surface at the point where a ray of light strikes. > Incident Ray: A ray which impinges upon a surface. > Refracted Ray: a ray that has changed direction after crossing from one media to another, in which the speed is different. > Emergent ray: the light ray leaving a medium in contrast to the entering or incident ray. > Angle of incidence: the angle between the incident ray and a normal.

    • Word count: 1022
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Find the critical angle and refractive index for plastic using a graphical treatment for my results.

    4 star(s)

    Angle of incidence (I): Angle between incidence ray and normal at point of incidence. Point of incidence: Point at which incident ray meets boundary and becomes refracted ray. Critical angle: The particular angle of incidence of a ray hitting a less dense medium, which results in it being refracted at 900 to the normal. Normal: A line at right angles to boundary through chosen points. There are two main laws of refraction of light: 1. The refracted ray lies in the same plane as the incident ray and normal at the point of incidence.

    • Word count: 1127
  4. Marked by a teacher

    Investigation to find the change in the speed of light through perspex.

    4 star(s)

    a and refraction ? b and the refractive indices na and nb of the media are related through what has become known as Snell's Law: Snell's Law = the refractive index of the medium light is passing into the refractive index of the medium light is passing out of = Sin(i)/Sin(r). Apparatus Perspex block (semi-circular) Protractor sheet (A4) Lens Collimator Optical pins Power pack Method * First we gathered all the required equipment. * Then we set it up by placing the perspex d-block on the A4 protractor paper and plugged in the ray box into the mains.

    • Word count: 1374
  5. Marked by a teacher

    An investigation into the factors affecting the frequency of a standing wave

    4 star(s)

    I have decided to investigate the effect that altering the length of string along which the wave travels. From the above equations, I would expect the frequency to be inversely proportional to the length of string, as you would create a shorter wavelength when the string is shorter, and the speed can be kept constant. Because I am only investigating the change in frequency caused by a change in length of the string, both the tension and the mass per unit length of the strength need to be kept the same to get accurate results. Method To keep the Mass per unit length of wire the same, I am going to use the same piece of constantan wire for all my results, which has a mass per unit length of 32 (swp).

    • Word count: 1375
  6. Marked by a teacher

    Investigation:To find the refractive index of cooking oil.

    4 star(s)

    The greater the optical density, the greater the refraction index will be. In order to find the refractive index of cooking oil I will calculate the refractive index of other materials to give me an idea of what the answer might be. To ensure that the refractive index for cooking oil is as accurate as possible, ethanol and water will be tested during the pilot experiment. This should justify whether the method being used is correct because the results can be compared with the published values shown below. Substance Refractive index Air 1.00 Glass 1.50 Water 1.33 Ethanol 1.36 I therefore predict that the refractive index of cooking oil will be between the refractive index of water and glass.

    • Word count: 3078
  7. Peer reviewed

    Graphs illustrating variants of y = sin x.

    5 star(s)

    By doing this we are taking A<0. Graph 5 Graph 5 shows us that the wave flips around when A is negative. So we can conclude that when A<0 the wave will always be upside down From investigating graphs of y = Asin x, we can conclude that when the A is less than 1 then the wave compresses vertically and when A is greater than 1 the wave expands vertically. If A is less than 0, then the whole wave flips upside down.

    • Word count: 1010
  8. Peer reviewed

    What Is Fibre Optics

    5 star(s)

    This angle is called the angle of Total Reflection. Fibre Optics uses this simple principle for transmission. The core of the fibre optics cable, which is made of glass, has a higher index of refraction than the index of the cladding, which covers this core. So when light is injected into the glass core at the correct angle, it will reflect back from the surface and continue doing this in its forward direction of travel. In other words the light cannot "escape" from the fibre. COMPONENTS OF A FIBRE OPTICS SYSTEM The use of fibre optics is extensive, but the components used to make up a system are usually similar.

    • Word count: 1147
  9. Peer reviewed

    Optics - the human eye and coomon defects

    4 star(s)

    The amount of light entering the eye is controlled by the Iris. Sharp focusing is achieved by altering the shape of the lens. The shape of the lens is controlled by the ring of ciliary muscle which runs round the outside of the lens. (http://www.riverdeep.net/current/2002/01/012002_images/eye.jpg) Defects in the eye:- 1. Long Sight (Hypermetropia) In this condition we can see distant objects more clearly that ones that are nearby. This is usually because the cornea is not curved enough, which reduces the angle of refraction, and the lens cannot accommodate sufficiently to bring the diverging rays from near objects into sharp focus on the retina.

    • Word count: 651
  10. Peer reviewed

    Mobile Phone case study

    4 star(s)

    Macrocells are the largest type of base stations and provide the main coverage for mobile phone networks. Its antennas can be mounted on ground-based masts, rooftops or other structures and must be high enough to avoid obstruction. Macrocells provide radio coverage over different distances, depending on the frequency used, the number of calls being made and the surrounding environment. Microcells are used to improve capacity in areas where mobile phone communication is frequent, such as shopping centres. The antennas for microcells are mounted at street level. They are smaller than macrocell antennas and can usually be disguised, so that they are less obvious, in case of vandalism.

    • Word count: 1413
  11. Peer reviewed

    How does the number of coils on an electromagnet affect its strength?

    4 star(s)

    The more induced voltage, the stronger the electromagnet. An alternative way to strengthen an electromagnet is to replace the core with a "soft" iron core. Prediction: - An increase in the number of coils applied to the iron nail will cause an increase in the number of paperclips being picked up. (a positive correlation between the two variables) This prediction derived from the scientific knowledge above - 'Therefore, the more turns of the coil you have, the greater the magnetic field and the stronger the electromagnet.' Apparatus: - Iron nail (1)

    • Word count: 1038
  12. Peer reviewed

    Physics of water waves.

    4 star(s)

    After reflection the wave has the same speed, frequency and wavelength as it did prior to the collision. This is similar to the reflection of circular waves off a straight barrier. The reflected waves are also circular, however they have a centre point that is position behind the barrier. This point is known as the "image" of the source. Reflection of a parabolic or concave barrier can be closely compared to that of light waves off a concave mirror. If the incident wave was straight, the reflected waves are curved, and they converge at a fixed focal point.

    • Word count: 603
  13. Peer reviewed

    Experiment to investigate the relationship between speed and depth for a water wave.

    4 star(s)

    For my preliminary work, I did the experiment and tested that a wave would be able to be created. The preliminary work brought up the problem of how high the wooden block should be held up before it is swung into the water, it was decided that it should be swung from about 4cm above the bottom of the guttering. Safety Precautions: Even though safety is a virtue the experiment being conducted is a relatively safe one. The only major danger is slipping on the water, which has been spilled, and so when water is spilled the water is cleaned up immediately.

    • Word count: 1006

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