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GCSE: Waves

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  1. Investigating light and refraction using a glass block.

    This makes the ray of light turn like a tank, therefore refracting it. Statement of intent I plan to change the angle of incidence as the rays of light enter a glass blocks and record the angle of incidence and refraction to see how they effect each other. Prediction I predict that whatever the angle of incidence is, it will be larger then the angle of refraction because the light will be entering something denser, so the wave nearest the "normal" will enter the block first, causing the ray to turn towards the normal, reducing the angle size.

    • Word count: 1336
  2. Physics Laboratory - "Waves in Strings".

    1.72 0.990 0.542 0.383 The Inverse of the Square Root of Force (to 3 s.f.) 0.582 1.01 1.84 2.61 2.), 5.) See attached sheets please. B.1.) There is a clear relationship between the number of harmonics and the force pulling on the string. As the harmonics increase the mass hanging decreases exponentially. 2.) See graph for working out. Our graph starts from the second harmonic, since we only got results starting from the second one. It is quite clear, just by looking at the graph that it is exponential and if you continue the line beyond what the graph shows us, you can estimate what force would be needed for the 1st harmonic.

    • Word count: 1013
  3. To Investigate what Factors Affect Reflection.

    If I double the angle of incidence the angle of refraction will also be doubled- Angle I=20 Angle r=14 When doubled Angle I=40 Angle r=28 This does not happen on my averaged results, which means that my graph is not accurate. This means that my Graph does not support my prediction. A better way of getting results that are more proportional would be to use 'Snell's Law'. This means that you multiply the angle of incidence by sin and the angle of refraction also by sin; separately.

    • Word count: 892
  4. Describe and explain how a simple radio receiver and transceiver works and then explain one of its uses in an ILS (Instrument Landing System).

    Although it sounds very simple a design it is actually rather more complicated and uses many different methods of communications that I will discuss later. The pilot flies his aircraft along a course delineated by the intersection of two radio beams. These beams activate an indicator in the aircraft that contains a horizontal needle sensitive to deviations from the glide slope (vertical deviation indicator) and a vertical needle sensitive to deviations from the localizer path (horizontal deviation indicator). By keeping both needles centred, the pilot can guide his aircraft down to the end of the landing runway aligned with the runway centre line.

    • Word count: 1918
  5. Find out the speed of light through Perspex by passing a narrow ray of light through a D-Block of Perspex, by using the same concepts and ideas as Snell's Law.

    Then on leaving it will refract away from the normal. The effect of this is that the emergent ray is parallel to the incident ray, but is "laterally displaced" from it. Info for prediction We know the speed of light in air which is 300,000,000 m/p/s, so firstly work out what sine I over sine r is and you multiply 300,000,000 by what ever you work out sine I over sine r to be. E.g. if refractive index = 0.7 you would do 300,000,000 x 0.7 = 210,000,000, so speed of light in Perspex is 210,000,000.

    • Word count: 1141
  6. Compare the measured refractive index of three liquids against the unknown values and to then use the technique to measure the refractive of an unknown liquid.

    This will prevent the light ray from going through the small lump at the bottom of the tank. It also creates a new level. A ray box will be placed in a certain position so that the ray will go through the tank. The angles will be measured and the refractive index will be worked out from this. The equation I will be using to work this out will be: Refractive Index of substance = speed of light in air Speed of light substance This experiment will be carried out with 3 different liquids- ethanol, sunflower oil and water.

    • Word count: 1411
  7. The waves of Feminism.

    The key concerns of the first wave feminists were education, employment, the marriage laws and the bad conditions of intelligent middle-class single women. They were not primarily concerned with the problems of working class women, nor did they necessarily see themselves as feminists in the modern sense. First wave feminists largely responded to specific injustices they had themselves experienced. The major achievements of the movement were the opening of higher education to women, reform of the girls' secondary-school system, including participation in formal national examinations, the widening of access to the professions, especially medicine and married women's Property Act of 1870 as well as some improvement in divorced and seperated women's child custody rights.

    • Word count: 1534
  8. An Experiment to Measure the Speed of Light in Glass.

    it slows down, this is caused by there being more particles in the way. Light refracts because the change in speed, hitting the medium at an angle, causes one side of the ray to slow down first, and so it turns, towards the normal. The normal is a line at right angles to the medium. If a ray went down the normal, no refraction would occur, as both sides of the ray would slow down at the same time. If light went through from a medium into a vacuum, the ray would speed up.

    • Word count: 1081
  9. Investigating the Factors that Affect the Strength of an Electromagnet.

    3) A small magnetic field is generated in the wire and this is the basis of the electromagnet. The picture below shoes the shape of a magnetic field surrounding the wire. A circular magnetic field develops around the wire and the field weakens as it moves further away from the wire. The field is perpendicular to the wire and the direction of the field depends on what direction the electric current is flowing through the wire. Because the magnetic field around a wire is circular and perpendicular to the wire, it would be easier to amplify the wire's magnetic field by coiling the wire around a metal object, like a nail.

    • Word count: 1517
  10. Making Sense of Data.

    The amplitudes of both waves are added together, thus making the overall amplitude bigger. Therefore, we hear an increase in volume when the waves are superposed. These vibrations extend a little out of the edge of the tube. The distance extended, or end correction (c), is directly proportional to the radius of the pipe: c = 0.58 � radius You can also find the end correction by constructing the graph with the reciprocal of the frequency against the length of the pipe. The difference between zero and the point at which the trend line crosses the x-axis will give you the end correction of the pipe. This is the equation of the trend line.

    • Word count: 772
  11. To Plan and perform an investigation to show how the strength of magnetism in an electromagnet is affected by the number of coils.

    If there is one coil, and another is added, then the two coils have twice the strength of one. This is because the current going through the wire makes the iron nail an electromagnet, with more wire the nail will become more magnetised. The strength of the electromagnet can also increase if the current in the wire is increased. Diagram and apparatus nail wire Ammeter Power pack Top pan balance Iron fillings Method 1. Wrap the wire around the nail 20 times 2. Then connect the wire to the ammeter 3. Then connect the wire to the Power pack 4. Mark a height on the nail where u are going to dip the nail into the iron filings 5.

    • Word count: 742
  12. What factors have an effect on the strength of an electromagnet?

    The more current I add the stronger the strength is because there are electrons (electricity) moving through the wire and are causing it to have a magnetic field. The more electrons moving through the wire, then the bigger and stronger the magnetic field around the wire is going to be. One of the reasons that I know that there is a magnetic field around a wire when electricity runs through it, is because* Christian Oersted discovered it in 1819*. I think, that the reason why the iron core gets magnetised is because inside it are lots of pairs of electrical charges or magnetic poles, *of equal magnitude*, separated by a small distance.

    • Word count: 1198
  13. There are several ways of sharing information - Statistical information - data.

    Continuous data is usually found in grouped frequency tables. Now that you are familiar with the different types of data, you much organize the data with the use of a Tally Chart or more specifically a Frequency Distribution Table. Such Tables records or keeps count of the data you have collected. Frequency is defined as the number of outcomes of an event. An example of a basic frequency distribution using a tally chart is shown below. This Table represents the number of times Mary takes the train in a year.

    • Word count: 1743
  14. To investigate how the angle of deviation in a glass block depend on the angle of incidence.

    * Draw the refracted ray that overlaps the light ray which is bent away the normal. * Connect the incidence ray and refracted ray. * Measure each angle of deviation which is relative each angle of incidence. * Repeat the experiment and record different results. (Measure all the angles by using a protractor.) Valid Evidence: > Vary angle of incidence (independent variable) by moving the ray box further away form the normal. After that I need to measure the angle of deviation by using a protractor. > Control variables for a fair test, I will have to keep the following factors the same: 1- Same glass block 2- Ray box distance from block (This can affects the width of light ray and the brightness as well)

    • Word count: 1350
  15. To investigate how the strength of an electromagnet change as you varies the number of turns of the coils.

    There are many advantages of using an electromagnet in many places. For example: In many electrical devices, such as electric bell and buzzer. Electromagnet is used to switch on and off in the circuit. Large electromagnets are used in cranes for lifting heavy iron objects. Prediction: I predict that as the number of turn of coils increase, the more weight the electromagnetic can hold. This is because when you increase the turn of the coil, the electromagnetic gets stronger. As increasing the turn of the coils is one of the factors that can increase the strength of electromagnet, therefore the electromagnet can hold more weight.

    • Word count: 1406
  16. Waves.Aim To find out whether drop height, depth or both affect the speed of a wave.

    If the radius of the circles decreases, this means that the wavelength of the wave increases. If the wavelength increases, the speed of the wave therefore increases. The speed of the wave is directly proportional to the wavelength. Aim To find out whether drop height, depth or both affect the speed of a wave. Method The first thing I will do is to collect my equipment. The equipment I will be using is: 1. Tray 4. Ruler 2. Water 5. Clamp stand 3. Stop clock Stacey Owen Candidate no: 0126 Hampton Community College I will set my equipment up like this: I will fill the tray with 0.5cm of water, then I will lift it 0.5cm above the tray height.

    • Word count: 1327
  17. An Investigation to Determine the Effect of the Number of Turns around the Core of an Electromagnet on its Strength.

    In the case of voltage we found that any voltage above two volts shorted out the power pack too quickly for us to make an effective test, so we were forced to use the minimum voltage setting for the iron nail throughout the experiment. Similar preliminary work was done for the c-core, we discovered that three volts was stable on the power pack, and that measurable results could be obtained on a smaller number of turns than with the iron nail.

    • Word count: 1701
  18. Forced vibrations, resonance and damping.

    This resistance box varies the amount of electromagnetic damping to the set figure. Once we have done this we will then record the time it takes for 20 oscillations to occur and then calculate the time for one oscillation. Then using this we cam calculated the natural frequency of oscillation of the coil. For each setting, we will then recorded the amplitude of the oscillations shown on the galvanometer. Once this was all done we began our experiment and we can change the frequency on the signal generator and recorded the amplitude. Below are the results from the experiment.

    • Word count: 833
  19. Our aim for this experiment is to find out a method of increasing the strength of an electromagnet. My aim for this experiment is to see if the number of turns in the coil around a nail can affect the strength of an electromagnet.

    In my experiment I will be using paperclips. I will count the number of paperclips the magnet can pick up. In my experiment my variables will be the amount of coils as it will be coiled around the nail and this number of coils will be varied at 10 coils then 20 coils then 30 coils then 40 coils then 50 coils then 60 then 70 and finally 80 coils. The current will be a constant so it will be the same all the way for a fair test it will be measured in amps.

    • Word count: 1485
  20. To investigate how the depth of the water will effect the speed of a wave in it.

    and therefore less waves can be made in one second. Apparatus: o 0.28m x 0.4m flat bottomed plastic tray more than 0.05m deep o Ruler o Measuring cylinder o Block to rest tray on o Stopwatch o Water Method: 1.) Fill tray with 600ml of water, this should create a depth of 0.5cm 2.) Rest tray at an angle on block as shown in fig 1 Figure 1 3.) Quickly pull the block from under the tray, when the tray hits the surface start the stop clock 4.)

    • Word count: 1728
  21. Will increasing current in an electromagnet increase the power of the electromagnet?

    When the power supply is cut off the items picked up will fall off. This is because the current creates a magnetic field and this magnetic field is lost when it is turned off. When a current channels through an electromagnet a magnetic field is produced. This field is built up in a series of concentric rings. The diagram below shows a cross-section of a wire's magnetic field. As you come further away from the wire the field weakens and spreads further apart from each ring.

    • Word count: 1367
  22. Investigating the Relationship Between Real and Apparent Depth.

    danger that could be inflicted on anyone during the experiment, to make sure the experiment was safe I took care of the pins, I kept the pins on the wooden board or attached to the glass blocks. I could have worn some gloves but I thought that this would not be necessary as there was no real danger. I am going to measure the real and apparent distance of an optical pin placed behind glass blocks. To measure the apparent depth I will attach an optical pin to a glass block then I will place a drawing pin on top

    • Word count: 1078
  23. Soil water content in relation to species diversity in a Pingoe.

    The other factor for the presence of the grassland at Fouldon common is the presence of pingos. It is because of the pingos that the land can not be used for growing crops this is due to the uneven surface that would make it almost impossible to plough. The land therefore has been used for grazing instead this then helped to maintain the rare chalk grassland. Pingos can be found in both grassland and woodland, and are described as depressions in the ground that were formed during the ice age. This was caused by water welling out of the chalk during the ice age and then freezing to form a lens like structure of ice, which pushed

    • Word count: 5786
  24. Investigation Into How the Depth of Water Affects the Speed of a Wave.

    I chose 3 laps because after that the wave starts to lose momentum and slows down. Apparatus 1 Container 1 Ruler Water 1 Stopwatch Prediction I predict that the greater the depth of water, the faster the waves will travel. The reason for this is that when the water is shallow, the container bottom begins to interfere with water motion. The bottom constrains the water motion and results in a dragging affect on the waves. Also, the deeper the water the greater the mass and therefore force of the wave, which creates more momentum and speed.

    • Word count: 1753
  25. During this coursework practical, we aim to study the behaviour of water waves at various depths of water.

    DIAGRAM PRELIMINARY WORK Before the real coursework experiment, some preliminary investigations were conducted. We experimented with the tank being filled with just one particular water depth, to try to work out if the wave (ripple) we caused would travel at a steady speed or not (using a stopwatch). We lifted one end of the tank up to any reasonable height and promptly dropped it, thus causing a visible ripple (wave) to travel across the water. These were the results obtained: Time taken for 1 ripple bounce (s) Time taken for 2 ripple bounces (s)

    • Word count: 1336

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