Preparation of Salts.

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Soluble salt 1(aq) + soluble salt 2(aq)              insoluble salt + soluble salt (aq)

                              acid 1(aq)             acid 2(aq)

Pb(NO3)2(aq) + Na2SO4(g)                          PbSO4(s) + 2NaNO3(aq)

Pb2+(aq) + SO(aq)                      PbSO4

To prepare a salt, you should firstly thoroughly mix the solution, then you should filter it to remove any precipitate.  Next, you should, wash with distilled water and finally leave to dry in the oven.

2.         SOLUBLE SALTS

  1. Filtration
  1. acid + base                    salt + water

H2SO4(aq) + CuO(s)                     CuSO4(aq) + H2O(l)

H2SO4(aq) + Mg(OH)2(s)          MgSO4(aq) + H2O(l)

  1. acid + insoluble metal carbonate               salt + water + carbon dioxide

H2SO4(aq) + CuCO3(s)        CuSO4(aq) + H2O(l) + CO2(g)

  1. acid + reaction metal                 salt + hydrogen

H2SO4(aq) + Mg(s)           MgSO4(aq) + H2(g)

The base or the metal carbonate must be insoluble so that we can remove the excess through the method of filtration.  The metals that we can use must react with acids but must not react with water as this would contaminate the salt with metal hydroxide.  The metals that we can use are:

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We firstly measure approximately 25cm3 of sulphuric acid, by pouring it into a beaker.  This only occurs in case ‘i’ and not in cases ‘ii’ and ‘iii’.  Next we heat up the acid until it is virtually boiling.  In all cases, we add the solid until it is in excess (more than what will react).  This is done so that we can make sure all of the acid reacts.  In cases ‘ii’ and ‘iii’, we heat up the beakers to speed up the reactions.  To make sure that it is complete we filter the solutions into an evaporating ...

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