Rate of reaction.

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G.C.S.E Science coursework                October 03

Miss. Searle

Rate Of Reaction.


I am going to investigate how Hydrochloric acid (HCL) when added to magnesium (Mg) at different concentrations, will affect its rate of reaction. I will measure all sulphuric acid concentrations in moles (M).

In the reaction between hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon, the hydrochloric acid will dissolve the magnesium and produce hydrogen All chemical reactions involve reactants which when mixed may cause a chemical reaction which will make products.

In my case the reactants are hydrochloric acid and magnesium ribbon. The chemical reaction takes place when the magnesium ribbon is dropped into the hydrochloric acid. The products that are formed during this reaction are hydrogen gas and magnesium chloride. The formula equation for this experiment is:

Mg + 2HCl (r) MgCl2 + H2

Magnesium + Hydrochloric acid (r) Magnesium Chloride + Hydrogen


The following information was drawn from Microsoft Encarta 97 and encylopedia.com


Magnesium, symbol Mg, silvery white metallic element that is relatively un-reactive. In group 2 (or IIa) of the periodic table, magnesium is one of the alkaline earth metals. The atomic number of magnesium is 12.

Properties and Occurrence

The metal, first isolated by the British chemist Sir Humphry Davy in 1808, is obtained today chiefly by electrolysis of fused magnesium chloride. Magnesium is malleable and ductile when heated. With the exception of beryllium, it is the lightest metal that remains stable under ordinary conditions. The metal is not attacked by oxygen, water, or alkalis at room temperature; it reacts with acids. When heated to about 800° C (about 1472° F), it reacts with oxygen and emits a brilliant white light. Magnesium melts at about 649° C (1200° F), boils at about 1107° C (about 2025° F), and has a specific gravity of 1.74; the atomic weight of magnesium is 24.305.

Magnesium ranks sixth in natural abundance among elements in crystal rocks. It occurs in nature only in chemical combination with other elements, particularly as the minerals carnallite, dolomite, and magnesite; in many rock-forming silicates; and as salts, such as magnesium chloride, in ocean and saline-lake waters. It is an essential constituent of animal and plant tissue.


Magnesium forms divalent compounds, chief among which are magnesium carbonate (MgCO3), which is formed by the reaction of a magnesium salt and sodium carbonate and is used as a refractory and insulating material; magnesium chloride (MgCl2·6H2O), which is formed by reacting magnesium carbonate or oxide with hydrochloric acid and is used as dressing and filler for cotton and woollen fabrics, in paper manufacture, and in cements and ceramics; magnesium citrate (Mg3(C6H5O7) 2·4H2O), which is formed by the reaction of magnesium carbonate with citric acid and is used in medicine and effervescent beverages; magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)22), formed by the reacting of magnesium salt and sodium hydroxide and used in medicine as the laxative "milk of magnesia," and in sugar refining; magnesium sulphate (MgSO4·7H2O), well known as Epsom salt; and magnesium oxide (MgO), called burnt magnesia, or magnesia, prepared by burning magnesium in oxygen or by heating magnesium carbonate and used as a heat-refractory and insulating material, in cosmetics, as a filler in paper manufacture, and as a mild, antacid laxative. Alloyed forms of magnesium have considerable tensile strength. The metal is used when lightness is an essential factor: alloyed with aluminium or copper, it is used extensively in making castings for airplane parts; in artificial limbs, vacuum cleaners, and optical instruments; and in such products as skis, wheelbarrows, lawn mowers, and outdoor furniture. The unalloyed metal is used in photographic flash powders, incendiary bombs, and signal flares; as a deoxidiser in the casting of metals; and as a getter, a substance that achieves final evacuation in vacuum tubes.

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The estimated world production of magnesium in 1989 was 350,000 metric tons. The estimated United States production in the same year was 148,000 metric tons.

Hydrochloric Acid

Chemical compound, HCl, a colourless, poisonous gas with an unpleasant, acrid odour. It is very soluble in water and readily soluble in alcohol and ether. It fumes in moist air. It is not flammable, and the liquid is a poor conductor of electricity. Hydrogen chloride is prepared commercially by the reaction of sulphuric acid with sodium chloride (common salt); niter cake, a mixture of sodium bisulfite and sulphuric acid that is a by-product ...

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