Firstly geostationary orbits, geostationary orbits are when a satellite is placed on the equator with latitude 0 degrees, and orbit at the equal speed of the Earths rotation. So from the Earth it looks like the satellite remains in the same place, and does not move, the only thing that differs between geostationary satellites is there longitude. Geostationary satellites would be used for things like television and radio transmitting. Where as with a polar orbit it is quite the opposite, polar orbiting satellites are at an inclination of 90 degrees from the equator, and have an orbital period of around 100 minutes. They pass very close the both the poles, hence the name “polar orbit”. These satellites would be used for mapping the weather and reconnaissance as they are constantly moving so they cover more ground and collect data for specific things faster.
To get a satellite to orbit around Mars you would first of all have to launch it with enough velocity to reach it, but when it reaches Mars you want it to have little enough velocity so that it can be captured by Mars’ gravitational field. Once it is captured it would have to use a series or aero braking to achieve a stable orbit, once that is achieved it will continue its orbit until its orbit decays and it then plummets to Mars, but if it were a particularly well equipped satellite it may have extra thrusters which could be activated as the orbit starts to decay, to maintain an orbit for quite a while after what would normally be expected.
Microwaves play a huge role in space exploration and technology. There is almost nothing in outer space to block or absorb lower-frequency waves, such as radio waves. However, the earth's ionized upper atmospheric layer-the ionosphere-reflects or absorbs most lower-frequency waves before they leave the vicinity of earth. But microwaves are different; they can penetrate the ionosphere and travel all the way to Mars and even further. This makes them useful for exploring the universe. The most useful application of microwaves in space, however, is satellite communications. Satellites make communication between widely separated points on earth possible without any physical connection between the two points, such as telephone lines or fibre-optic cables. Because microwaves travel in straight lines, there has to be something in space to reflect or retransmit the microwaves if the two points cannot see each other directly-that's where satellites come in.