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# To investigate how concentration affects the rate of reaction between magnesium ribbon and dilute hydrochloric acid.

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Introduction

INVESTIGATION - RATES OF REACTION Aim: - To investigate how concentration affects the rate of reaction between magnesium ribbon and dilute hydrochloric acid. Equation: - magnesium + hydrochloric magnesium + hydrogen acid chloride Mg(s) + 2HCl(aq) MgCl2(aq) + H2(g) Prediction: - I think the higher the concentration of dilute hydrochloric acid, the faster the rate of reaction. I think the concentration of the dilute hydrochloric acid is directly proportional to the rate of reaction. Therefore, I predict that if the concentration is doubled, twice the number of particles in the same volume, the rate of reaction will be doubled. Explanation: - For a chemical reaction to take place, particles must collide. We call this the collision theory. There are 4 factors which affect collision theory; concentration, a catalyst, the surface area and the temperature. I will be investigating the effect of concentration on a reaction, so all other factors must stay the same. If there are more particles present in the reaction in the same volume then there will be more collisions and more will be successful collisions, meaning the reaction will be faster. Therefore as the concentration is increased, the same amount of hydrogen will be produced at a faster rate. ...read more.

Middle

Results: - Concentration of dilute hydrochloric acid (M) Time for 10cm� of hydrogen gas to be produced (seconds) 0.5 2.5 1.0 0.4 Conclusion: - My preliminary experiment was good; however it did raise some issues, which I will change for my actual experiment. * I will keep the amount of gas to collect at 10cm3. I felt this was sufficient. * I will also keep the range of concentrations I'm using the same. These are 0.5M, 0.75M, 1.0M, 1.5M and 2.0M. * I will change the volume of acid to 20cm3 and I will change the length of the magnesium to 3.0cm as I feel the reaction for 2.0 M will be too fast for me to record reliable, accurate results FINAL EXPERIMENT Method: - The trough was filled until it was three quarter full. Then the boiling tube was filled with the 20cm3 of hydrogen chloride and the rubber bung placed securely on the top of the boiling tube. The delivery tube was placed so that it lay on the bottom of the trough and so that the end was underneath the water. The measuring cylinder was filled to the 10cm3 and a hand placed over it so that no water spilled, and it was turned upside down. ...read more.

Conclusion

I did a preliminary experiment to see what would work and what I would have to do make my experiment more accurate and reliable. I think the experiment used a good method as my results showed a smooth curve when plotted onto a graph. I would however improve it if had to repeat it. I would use a thistle a gas syringe to collect the gas, which would give a more accurate reading. It was clear when to stop the stop clock as I was down at eye level and the measuring cylinder was easy to read. All my results were within 10% of each other, so I had no anomalous results. I have proved that the concentration of dilute hydrochloric acid is inversely proportional to the concentration. My experiment was limited as I only investigate one acid and one metal, but I think that is reasonable to conclude that in a reaction with a metal and an acid, the higher the concentration of the acid, the higher the rate of reaction. I could redo the experiment I would experiment with more concentrations to improve the experiment, and also I would tie the magnesium to a piece of string and tilt the boiling tube in order to make sure that no gas escaped. ?? ?? ?? ?? (the diagrams are taken from http://www.wpbschoolhouse.btinternet.co.uk/index.htm ...read more.

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