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Vinegar. In this investigation I am going to find out the concentration of ethanoic acid in vinegar. The concentration of acid is different in the product made by different manufactures. I will react the acid in the vinegar solution of sodium hydroxide o

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Introduction

Concentration of Vinegar Introduction In this investigation I am going to find out the concentration of ethanoic acid in vinegar. The concentration of acid is different in the product made by different manufactures. I will react the acid in the vinegar solution of sodium hydroxide of known concentration in a titration experiment. Equipment * Plastic beaker * Glass beaker * Pipette * Funnel * Phenolphthalein * Vinegar Method: * Rinse the pipette with the diluted solution of vinegar. * Rinse the conical flask with distilled water Pipette 25cm� of diluted vinegar solution to the conical flask and add 4-5 drops of the indicator. * Rinse the burette with the solution of Sodium Hydroxide and be sure to get rid of any air bubbles in the tip of the burette. * Using the filter funnel, carefully fill the burette with the solution of Sodium Hydroxide. * Record the initial burette reading in a results table. * Set up the burette and the conical flask in the corresponding places for the titration. * Make sure there are no bubbles in the burette before using it. * Slowly and carefully run Sodium Hydroxide solution from the burette into the conical flask with swirling. ...read more.

Middle

One of the experiments does not contain water, but otherwise, the lowest amount in any one is 24.1ml and the highest 24.1ml. Having 50ml of liquid in each mixture will keep the experiment fair. The test would be preformed again until it is accurate and so making this experiment a very fair test. I think that these are important factors because it can be detrimental to how accurate and reliable the results were on the whole and it could leave me with anomalous results that have no reason behind their appearance. The amount of alkali should be used to neutralise vinegar that has not been diluted. However, we can see that for some of the other vinegar, the amount of alkali is less, which shows that it has been diluted. Having obtained the rough titre from this experiment we can be more accurate. I will keep the alkali I use the same by always using Sodium Hydroxide, NaOH. I will keep the concentration of NaOH the same by ensuring I use a 1M solution each time. I will always keep the acid the same by always using Ethanoic acid, CH3COOH. Although the concentration will vary, the amount will always stay the same. ...read more.

Conclusion

There are many possible qualitative errors that may have occurred. Firstly during my distillation of Ethanoic acid it is very likely that, as it was dangerous to evaporate to dryness some of the Ethanoic acid was left in the round-bottomed flask. Also some may well have been left behind in the condenser or evaporated for example when a conical flask was left uncovered. All these would of lead to lower values for the concentrations of Ethanoic acid being obtained. During other procedures qualitative errors could have affected my results. For example whilst performing my titration it was difficult to get the end point of my titration exactly right especially as the vinegars were coloured, and so occasionally more NaOH may have been added then was necessary. Also as I read the levels of the NaOH from the meniscus lines on the burette with my eyes these readings could be affected by human error and therefore may well be inaccurate. As well as this in experiments acid is generally added from the burette, so there could have been acidic impurities left in it that could have neutralised some of the NaOH and decreased its concentration. This also could have occurred for any other glassware used in my experiment especially my round bottomed flask which I didn't change between experiments, and so ethanoic acid could have remained in it from previous distillations. Naz Mariwan Science Coursework - Unit 1 ...read more.

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