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GCSE: Sociology

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  1. Outline and evaluate the functionalist and Marxist views on the family

    Its essential that the family provides this function to stabilise the social system, if the family failed to provide this function conflict may result. In many societies the family works together as a unit of production however it is not like this in all societies, however in many other societies (especially westernised societies) the family is a unit of consumption. This is important to the economy as it makes an important contribution to society. The reproduction function of the family is extremely important, because the family is the main unit of reproduction.

    • Word count: 938
  2. Busy Little Ants

    Tosh, the first-born son, is expected to repay the family debt. However, he makes it clear that all he's asking for is his body (48). His body is the one tangible source of individuality that sets him apart from every other busy little ant. Choosing a life for himself as opposed to one that is predestined for him because of his filial duty simply does not sit right with his rebellious nature. As suggested in the title, Tosh merely wants a chance to pave his own path with the one foundation that can establish his individuality.

    • Word count: 836
  3. Life Chances

    Class is another central term in sociology. Marx defines class as an economic relationship based on production relations. He stated that class action is inevitable (although contained) and class struggle is a motor of history. He also stated that class relationships are grounded in exploitation. '...in discussing classes we are not just talking about identifiable groups of individuals, but about a structured relationship between collectivities which embody different functions within a specific method of production,' (Bradley 2002: 195). Weber however defined class as an economic category related to a market situation. 'amount and kind of economic power or lack of such, to dispose of goods or skills for the same or income in a given economic order' A

    • Word count: 1227
  4. Identity Essay

    Identity is all about similarities and differences. These help one identify their sense of self in relation to others who are similar or different. For example it can help identify distinctive characteristics that make one different from others, or identify a shared viewpoint or physical features that make one similar to others. Identity is about how we think about ourselves, other people around us and what we think others around us think of us, many people would imagine social life unimaginable without a social identity. Mukherjee grew up in a Hindu, Bengali-speaking and middle-class neighbourhood.

    • Word count: 1245
  5. Assess the contribution of sociological studies in the role of sects and other NRMs in relgion in moderen societies

    It is also believed that a lot of NRMs were started by women in oppressed times like Ann Lee - Shakers and Annie Besant - Theosophy but NRMs still attract females today even though they are not oppressed this could be because they feel there is still something that is holding them back and that they need somewhere to turn in times when they feel like they can go nowhere. There is also the problem with that why go and make up a new religion when there is plenty out there in society to chose from already.

    • Word count: 1462
  6. Society and Gender

    For example they always show parts of the females, like their butts, and b*****s. After seeing these things over and over, males start to only pay attention to these parts also. They do not worry about their personalities or other qualities, but only their outside features. This can lead to things such as abuse, r**e, and divorce. Medias also stress how important it is to be skinny and to have the perfect body.

    • Word count: 510
  7. Paddy Clarke ha ha ha

    The pranks are that of young boys who are bored, and trying to find a place where they fit in with society. The pranks can turn cruel though, such as when they lit Sinbad's mouth on fire. Paddy often picks on Sinbad, his brother, when no other target is available to him. Paddy is worried about staying on Kevin's good side and impressing his friends. In the novel, while he was struggling to open his brother's mouth in order to set it on fire, Paddy thought to himself, "This was terrible; in front of the others, I couldn't sort out my little brother" (8).

    • Word count: 1086
  8. roles of men and women in contemporary British society

    This implies that genders, due to the well known fact, are not only different in biological appearance, such as for example brain structure and its usage, body strength, metabolism, body build or genetic expression, but also in their skills, abilities, behaviour and aptitude. Sayers (1982), in her book asserts When one examines these supposedly purely biological accounts of gender roles one finds that they are rooted in appeal to social, not biological, considerations. This is true not only of recent biological analyses of s****l divisions in Society but also of the analogous biological explanations of these divisions advanced in the nineteenth century.

    • Word count: 1641
  9. "Absolutism can never be acceptable in a modern society" Discuss.

    However mankind is constantly evolving. Evolution of the human species has enabled mankind to start discovering and expand his knowledge. Through scientific advances in technology we are finding that religion says one thing and science provides conflicting answers. This is the basis of an ongoing conflict between religious beliefs, which hold faith in unproven phenomenons, and the scientific approach which provides something substantial. An absolutist conform, identifies with only 'black and white' there are no shades of grey as it were.

    • Word count: 1871
  10. Free essay

    Critically assess functionalist theories of the family

    family it was not socially approved due to it not been stable enough and if they had several children they may have different fathers which was looked down on. Also a nuclear family got more income because they had one full time worker (the male) playing the instrumental role and one full time house wife (the female) playing the expressive role, which was efficient unlike the one parent family where they got less income due to having a dual burden or sometimes a triple shift, however they did get benefits to help but it was only a small amount that didn't go that far, it also changes the way a child can be brought up with a lack of discipline.

    • Word count: 705

    It stands for the values of the group and by worshipping it people are essentially worshipping the group (society). Totemism is seen by Durkheim as the most elementary form of religion involving rituals and ceremonies around a totem which bring a group together. He states that religion is not a matter of individual belief, it is about collective rituals, ceremonies and worship which have the functions of bringing together and defining the group. Talcott Parsons states that religion gives meaning to life, religion answers questions e.g. why do people suffer, die. Why do villains prosper? Religion tests people's faith and claims if you're bad you will get punished in the afterlife.

    • Word count: 1643
  12. Free essay

    Sociological Theory for Social Work

    My understanding has increased regarding the reasons behind the increased income inequality, for example how Margaret Thatcher's free market economy affected the wealth imbalance in this country. Also how the major power influences, over society in Britain, are the policies and politics of our government thus I can relate Thompson's 1997 PCS model, of the structural oppression to our western capitalist society (Thompson, 2006). Reading the Barefoot Social Worker (Searing, 2006) in particular in relation to the teaching on class structures and how society discriminates amongst the lower classes has enabled me to see how service users are amongst some of the most vulnerable and impoverished in our society, and have benefited least from New Labour's social welfare reforms.

    • Word count: 1829
  13. Compare Marxist and Functionalist theories of the role of religion

    They believe that religion is about beliefs and practices because beliefs affect how people behave socially. They claim that communities come together to practice rituals, which are central to developing and maintaining social solidarity. The idea of symbols is vital to Durkheim's idea about the role of religion in our society. Durkheim shows this, through this study of Totemism, he found it to be the simplest most basic form of religion. The Clan is like an extended family, members share duties and obligations. For example not marrying within their clan. The clan also have a totem, the sacred symbol, is carved on a bullroarer.

    • Word count: 1343
  14. Free essay

    Sociological Perspectives

    God! Rather ideas are socially created and socially inherited through the generations" (Ref: www.sociologyonline.co.uk ) Karl Marx strongly believed that there where two classes to society, the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariats. The Bourgeoisie are the factory owners or the people who owned the factories and they did not take part in the means of production and the Proletariats are basically the workers, they provide the benefits and the wealth to the owners. "Marxist theorists suggest that the Bourgeoisie for their own gain exploit the Proletariats. This is where the idea of class conflict has arisen" (Ref. www.sociology.org.uk ) "Marx's theory was a 'grand theory'. Marx's theory took a 'macro-sociological' approach to society and social phenomenon.

    • Word count: 1115
  15. In your opinion, is this view consistent with Jean-Jacques Rousseau's ideas as expressed in The Social Contract?

    The reason Rousseau argues that an individual's particular will is a product of appetite, therefore selfish. While the general will is a product of reason, thinking logically about the good of all. Therefore acting upon appetite is slavish and bad, and acting upon reason is noble and good. Rousseau proposes that we should all therefore be noble and good, and obey the general will for the good of all. (A103) However we encounter problems when people disagree over what is the best course of action to resolve a problem; Rousseau suggests that for any question society faces there is a single correct answer, yet to get to this answer people are to reason in the same way.

    • Word count: 1320
  16. Early sociological commentators can be characterised as either conflict or consensus theorists'. Discuss.

    different stance and developed sociological perspectives that are still used today- Marx was the founder of Marxism, (along with Engels), Durkheim is commonly associated with being one of the founders of functionalism and Weber built upon the work of Marx in developing Weberian sociology. One significant difference in the views of these sociologists that should be noted is the fact that Weber rejected the shared idea of Marx and Durkheim which suggests the "structures existed external to or independent of the individual" [Giddens 2006:18].

    • Word count: 2213
  17. Free essay

    rationalle and context

    About 10 years later in 1986 Christine Griffin conducted some research 'It's different for girls'. She found that boys and girls social groups differ to the extremes and when she tried to find similarities she struggled immensely. Girls extremely disliked the idea of 'factory work' "it's just sitting at a machine for a long time". It appears that the 'girls' would find this tedious and wanted to do a 'job that's interesting and different. Tearesa Grafton a year later in 1987 carried out a study on subject choices in1st and second years at high school, she found the combinations available

    • Word count: 889
  18. The Hindu Woman: Life under the Laws of Manu

    But from a Hindu perspective it is only those women who abandon their desires and independence and willingly submit and dedicate themselves to the men in their lives who are able to receive this honour and adornment. These dichotomous treatises complement each other; one could not exist without the other. Codifying Female Injustices This relegation to an inferior position has not always been the reality for Hindu women. From all available accounts, in the early Vedic period it appears that women occupied the same position as men (Andal, 2002:20).

    • Word count: 3849
  19. Free essay

    What were the most important influences affecting middle class housing between 1918 and 1970?

    'The official preference [...] for low-density housing developments on the fringe of the built up area'4 derived partly from the moral attitudes of the Victorians which stressed the importance of light and fresh air. Living in the suburbs meant the middle class were removed from the dirt, congestion and noise of the city, and could enjoy the fresh air of the nearby countryside. It was typical for rows of semi-detached houses to be built along the length of existing arterial roads.

    • Word count: 2400
  20. Is domestic violence a purely private problem or a national social problem?

    The estimated cost of domestic violence to the public purse is staggering, with combined tangible and intangible costs of �23 billion in the UK annually (Home Office 2005:2). Faced with these startling figures, no society can afford to be complacent. This essay will attempt to highlight the fundamental role society has played in perpetuating abuse within the family unit. It will look at the family within a historic context, examining traditional attitudes and laws that not only condone abusive behaviour, but actually encourage such practices.

    • Word count: 2893
  21. Free essay

    What was distinctive about gender roles in the nineteenth century?

    Compared to the beginning of the nineteenth century, it seems the hundred years in between were highly successful in progressing women's roles outside of a purely domestic field. However, this was not necessarily the case. Martha Vicinus says: "The cornerstone of the Victorian Society was the family; the perfect lady's sole function was marriage and procreation".1 The 'perfect lady' referred to in this quote is a Victorian ideal that was most fully developed in the upper middle classes. "In her most perfect form, the lady combined total s****l innocence, conspicuous consumption and the worship of the family hearth."

    • Word count: 1731
  22. Evaluation of the difference between Positivist and Interpretivist methodologies

    However, Popper also stated it would not be possible to produce laws that would always stand true, as there would be the possibility of future falsification.[15] But, the interpretivist, or phenomenologist, could see that the laws of natural science would be an inappropriate way of studying human behaviour. They, instead study social action to enable an understanding of verstehen2, a term coined by Max Weber. This can best be done, in the view of the interpretive theorist, by observation of, and interaction with the subject.

    • Word count: 1668
  23. Oscar Wilde's criticism of society in The Importance of Being Ernest

    She also believes that if people were more educated, they may question and therefore threaten the upper classes/aristocracy. Wilde often pokes gentle fun at the rules of social behaviour through Lady Bracknell. For example, it could be said that she is criticised for her strict views on social behaviour such as her attitudes towards dining habits: "It would put my table completely out. Your uncle would have to dine upstairs." This is an example of her absurd reaction to Algernon not being able to dine with them. Also, "Come, dear, we have already missed five, if not six trains.

    • Word count: 960
  24. Finding an Identity in Marie de France's Bisclavret and St. Augustine's Confessions

    In Confessions, Augustine's clothes represent a secular self and lifestyle that he wants to abandon for a true religious identity and lifestyle within the church. When the reader is introduced to Augustine, Augustine is a well-known rhetor and lives a normal, secular life in society. Augustine reevaluates his life, decides he wants to convert to Christianity and renders all of his possessions that he has gathered throughout his sinful life worthless in his pursuit in serving God. Among these possessions are his clothes.

    • Word count: 863
  25. Free essay

    Describe and Evaluate Functionalists Theories of The Family

    This would result in families no longer living in a household with their extended kin (i.e. grandparents) thus establishing the welfare state. Due to this, functionalists believed that the family structure endured a rapid change and the 'Nuclear Family' was introduced. The nuclear family consists of a mother, father and one or more children. This also resulted in specific gender roles. An example of this is the expressive role which the female would be expected to take. This means nurturing and raising the children and teaching them social values.

    • Word count: 992

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