A history of Socialism

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socialism Socialism is a social and governmental system, based on equality and social and economic justice, that requires government intervention in economic affairs. The state, rather than individual or market forces, owns and controls the means of production, distribution, and exchange.Socialism refers to both political doctrines and the political movement and system in which the doctrines are enacted. There are various forms of socialism, but all stress the need for revolutionary changes to redress what are believed to be moral flaws in capitalism. Socialists believe that capitalism was intended to satisfy people's needs and wants at a price, which along with paid interest and the profit motive, is immoral. Socialism stems from democracy, as the ideal of political equality is extended to economic equality. In theory, socialism is the first step toward communism. However, socialism differs from communism because it is based on democracy and ethical values and can allow for private ownership.Some historians trace the roots of socialism to the rise of philosophy in Greece. Social organization and the need to cooperate have always existed, and Hellenistic philosophy was concerned with the problems of society and citizenship. Christian morality developed from Hellenistic philosophy, and that morality encompassed economic issues. For example, the New Testament, which became the prevailing ethical code of Western civilization, included laws against usury, or excessive interest. The writings of Aristotle, as well as the Bible, show a belief that humans are entitled only to the property that they have created by their labor—a protosocialist idea.The roots of modern socialism are in revolutions in France and England. The French Revolution was the largest lower-class revolt in history, as the Third Estate, which included bourgeoisie and peasants, rebelled under the banner of "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" against the established societal, economic, and political structure of the ancien régime. The revolution progressed into a struggle for political and economic equality, as the depressed
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state of the French economy spread misery equally among the peasants. The Industrial Revolution in England started with the hope that the increased industrial development of a nation would lead to economic equality but instead led to the exploitation of workers and the concentration of wealth in the industrial capitalists. Those factors led to the utopian socialist movements in France and Great Britain during the early 19th century.For example, Henri de Saint-Simon believed that the social system of France before the French Revolution was not appropriate for the new age. Science had taken the place of the Catholic Church in ...

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