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International Baccalaureate: Biology

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  1. Investigating isotonic point of a potato

    Variables: Independent- Concentration of the solution Dependent - Change of the mass of the potato chip Controlled:- - Mass and volume of the potato chip - The size of the potato slice - Volume of the salt solution - Length of potato Apparatus: 1) A raw potato 2) Cork borers 3) Scalpel 4) Weighing scale 5) Salt solution of concentration 0.1M, 0.2M, 0.3M, 0.4M and 0.5M. 6) Tissue paper 7) Cello Tape 8) 5 Beakers Method: 1) Collect a fresh raw potato and remove the skin of it.

    • Word count: 1312
  2. Calibration curve

    In the test tube labelled '0' add no glucose. In the test tube labelled '1' add 1ml of glucose, now in the same way continue this process until u have filled the last test tube with 10ml. 4. Now different amounts of distilled water must be added into each test tube using a different syringe. It follows the same procedure as glucose. In the test tube labelled '0' 10 ml of distilled water should be added. In the test tube labelled '1' 9 ml of distilled water should be added.

    • Word count: 925
  3. Looking at the bio diversity and number of plant species in different locations

    Place the results in a table and then draw a pie chart Dependent variables - Temperature - * This was kept constant by carrying out the experiment during the same time of the day Insolation - * This was kept constant by carrying out the experiment during the same time of the day Soil pH - * This was difficult to keep constant, however once another group had measured it had been found that the pH of the soil was approximately 8.0 at both sites Precipitation - * This was not a problem since there was no precipitation during

    • Word count: 1344
  4. Constructing a pyramid of biomass reportt

    Hypothesis I expected to obtain a normal upright pyramid of biomass, as biomass decreases at each trophic level. This occurs because the transfer of energy from the producers to the primary consumers and between the consumers is inefficient i.e. energy is lost between each trophic level through all of the organisms not being eaten, through faeces, through loss of energy as heat or because it has been used as a fuel in respiration. Therefore, I expected a transfer of about 10% of biomass between each trophic level, as according to official values, and so to obtain an upright pyramid of biomass, as the one shown below: However, the results obtained might not be 100% accurate because the experiment was not carried out accurately or fairly i.e.

    • Word count: 950
  5. Enzyme activity

    Apparatus: 2 dimple trays, iodine indicator solution, 50-100ml starch solution, 25-50ml bacterial amylase, 2 pipettes, test tube, measuring cylinders, test tube rack, hot bath, water, ice, thermometer, large beaker, stopwatch Diagram Variables: Variables How it will be controlled! Independent Temperature is the investigated variable for this experiment to see what happens to the rate of reaction as it changes. The temperature is set for every 10 degrees. It is controlled between 5 to 75 degrees Celsius through a hot bath or by placing ice cubes into an exterior beaker.

    • Word count: 1610
  6. Predation and natural selection simulation

    Collect different types of food. 3) Spread the food on the floor. 4) Start to collect the food with the different beaks in a period of time of 20 seconds. 5) Count the food collected 6) Annotate the results on a table. 7) Repeat all this steps until all the different foods are tested. 8) Put all the results in a table. Table design: Species of birds Grass Av Seeds Av Roots Av Worms Av Cucharita cucharita Tenedoricus tortilla Cuchillaria cuchillaria Data collection:

    • Word count: 451
  7. Cystic Fibrosis Research

    Frequent lung infections occur because the immune system is less competent and thick mucus is produced. This mucus is produced because the layer of the cells that line the passages in the body's organs, also known as the epithelium, is affected by cystic fibrosis. The thick mucus does not move easily and therefore clogs the passages and the infection sets in [Figure 1]. The lungs and the pancreas are the two most affected organs because the thick mucus causes breathing and digestive problems [Figure 2]. Cystic fibrosis is a human disease because a disease is a pathological condition of a body part and characterized by an identifiable group of signs or symptoms.

    • Word count: 1472
  8. Photosynthesis " Limiting Factor

    In order to observe the impact of each colour on photosynthesis, we must have a similar mass of plant placed in water (in different test tubes) and use different light filters, (white as a control, and red, green, blue), in order to tests their effects on the rate of photosynthesis. Procedure 1. Measure out 100mL water and place in test tube 2. Cut a length of Elodea and add to the test tube 3. Put test tube in front of the lamp and leave for significant period of time (5 mins)

    • Word count: 1093
  9. Design an investigation into size and the rate of heat loss.

    Each potato piece stayed in water for 5 minutes so as to take in heat. Keeping them in water for the same amount of time guaranteed that each had an equal time to get heat and thus increased fairness. A beaker with the same uncertainty was used for each experiment. The same thermometer was used to take the temperature in each experiment. Equipment * 1 potato - large * Kettle * Measuring cylinder * 3 beakers * Tile * Tongs * Thermometer * Scalpel * Ruler Method 1. Peel the potato and cut it using the scalpel into 3 pieces measuring 2*2*2, 3*3*3 and 4*4*4 2.

    • Word count: 1055
  10. Osmosis Lab

    the diffusion of water * plasmolysis - a type of osmosis in which water moves out of the material * deplasmolysis - a type of osmosis in which water moves into the material * isotonic solution - a solution with equal concentration of solute inside and outside of the material * hypertonic solution - a solution with more solute in the surrounding environment than in the material * hypotonic solution - a solution with less solute in the surrounding environment than in the material Osmosis is the diffusion of water down its concentration gradient.

    • Word count: 1475
  11. DNA Strawberry Extraction Lap

    A clump of pinkish air bubbly DNA with countless tiny bubbles form from the filtrate at the bottom. Gradually, it rises up through the clear ethanol layer, becoming more white and clumped into a ball. Until it floats to the top, where it condenses and weaves together. View and describe the DNA with the naked eye and under the microscope. The DNA is pinkish white, sticky, and wet-cotton-like mass under naked eye. Microscope Diagram is attached. Discussion 1) What is the purpose of mashing the fruit? It is a mechanical disruption of cells that helps to break down the cell walls.

    • Word count: 1366
  12. Chi Square Experiment

    This will be repeated 24 more times, each time the color is to be recorded. Null Hypothesis: A 1:2:1 ration is expected. Any difference is due to chance. Alternative Hypothesis: Variation in bean size caused larger white beans to be picked more. Data Collection/Processing: Genotype: 1:2:1 Homozygous dominant: heterozygous dominant: homozygous recessive. Phenotype: 75% red 25% white Data Tables: Data gathered: RR Rr rr 2 10 8 Chi Square data table: Observed (O) Expected (E) O - E (O - E) 2 O - E) 2 / E RR 2 5 3 9 1.8 Rr 10 10 0 0 0 rr 8 5 3 9 1.8 Total: 1.8+1.8 = 3.6 P

    • Word count: 586
  13. The Temperature Preference of Woodlice

    The area was divided into 8 zones of 5 cm width. A thermometer was placed within each zone. Moist paper towels were put into the box and a thin layer of soil was spread over it. The initial temperature of each zone was measured and 10 woodlice were caught and placed within the box. The number of woodlice and temperature within each zone was counted and measured after 5 minutes, 15 minutes and 30 minutes. Results Table 1, Initial temperature Distance (cm)

    • Word count: 1044
  14. Extrapolation of Abundance of Dandelions in a Named Area

    The area was divided into 10m by 10m quadrates, which area subsequently was 100 m2. The quadrates were 54 in number, and were assigned a number from 1 to 54. Pieces of paper marked by the number 1 to 54 were made, and 6 notes were chosen randomly as 6 quadrates equals to 11,1% of the total area. The location of a quadrate was found by using the chart as a guide, measuring from the nearest corner. For example, to locate quadrate #16 we measured from the corner of #9 to #7 and then down to the corner of #16.

    • Word count: 977
  15. Free essay

    Pedigree Lab

    TABLE 1: The gene controlled character observed in father's family: Tongue Rolling No Tongue Rolling 1st Generation Grandmother ? Grandfather ? 2nd Generation Aunt 1 ? Aunt 2 ? Uncle 1 ? Uncle 2 ? Uncle 3 ? Father ? 3rd Generation Cousin 1 ? Cousin 2 ? Sister ? Me ? TABLE 2: The gene controlled character observed in mother's family: Tongue Rolling No Tongue Rolling 1st Generation Grandmother ? Grandfather ? 2nd Generation Mother ? Aunt ? Uncle ? 3rd Generation Sister ? Me ? After collecting the required data, we need interpret whether the pedigree chart of my family with the single controlled gene character of rolling the tongue is autosomal or X-linked.

    • Word count: 777
  16. Factors affecting the activity of an enzyme

    Research question: If there is a specific range of temperature in which enzymes function, this can be measured by the thickness of layer of foam and bubbles produced by the reaction between catalase in potato and hydrogen peroxide (building on experience of previous experiment). This can be done as temperature is altered and thereby deduce the effect of temperature on enzyme activity. Aim: To investigate the effects of varying temperature on the rate of enzyme activity in potato cells by measuring the amount of foam and bubbles produced as this implies the occurrence of enzyme activity.

    • Word count: 2292
  17. Effect of Age upon Vital Capacity

    The gender of a person can also affect their total vital capacity, so this must also be kept constant. Someone's race or ethnicity could possibly have an effect on their vital capacity; therefore this must also be kept to a constant. Health issues and problems that a person has could possibly have an effect on their vital capacity, so this must also be kept constant. A person's occupation could also have an effect on their vital capacity; therefore this must be kept constant.

    • Word count: 887
  18. Investigating the effect of pH of Hydrogen Peroxide upon the activity of Catalase

    This will accurately and effectively ensure that the Hydrogen Peroxide is all at the same temperature. The substrate concentration will be also be regulated by using a measuring cylinder to measure the amount so that it is consistent in every experiment. We measure this by the readings at the side of the measuring cylinder. For this experiment, 5ml of the substrate concentration will be used. To prevent the Catalase enzyme from having too much of a significant affect on the rate of reaction, this will also be kept constant. The chicken liver will be measured to 1cm� and weighing 0.5g for every test-tube of an experiment.

    • Word count: 4718
  19. Photosyntetic Pigments

    Green plants have six closely-related photosynthetic pigments (in order of increasing polarity): * Carotene - an orange pigment * Xanthophyll - a yellow pigment * Chlorophyll a - a blue-green pigment * Chlorophyll b - a yellow-green pigment * Phaeophytin a - a gray-brown pigment * Phaeophytin b - a yellow-brown pigment Electromagnetic Spectrum Light behaves as if it were composed of "units" or "packets" of energy that travel in waves. These packets are photons. The wavelength of light determines its color.

    • Word count: 876
  20. Nutrition Report

    And all of these essential things are found while our alimentation and respiration. Our alimentation is basically based on three different groups of food, and these three groups compose the right/perfect diet. The first one is the energetic, which is made from carbohydrates and fats. The second one is the constructor, which is the proteins and the last one is the regulator, which are the vitamins and minerals. Macroninutrients are carbohydrates, proteins and lipids, which are needed in bulk. Micronutrients are vitamins and minerals, which are only needed a small quantities. Fibre and water are not digested but are also necessary for a healthy diet.

    • Word count: 2176
  21. Genetics Research

    Does this mean Darwin's theory could possibly become "Unnatural Selection"? It is a potentially harmful thing to do by changing the theory or coming up something that will disprove the theory. Natural Selection is a process that occurs naturally in the universe and humans should never do anything that will oppose it, otherwise it will no longer be natural and the nature cycle will be disrupted. This is eventually become a problem as well as shown in pollution of the world and other aspects that are ruined by humans.

    • Word count: 867
  22. Hoorneboegse Heide

    The Hei was used many years ago by farmers to make manure for their farmland, to fertilize the crops. By placing cattle on the land, the farmers took manure rich soil out of it. Because of the constant work applied to the lands, only simple plants could grow there, such as the 'struikhei' you find today. In those days trees had no chance to grow in the vitamin rich soil, because the farmers kept on removing them.

    • Word count: 503
  23. Investigating the rate of Enzyme Activity when Catalase is added in a hydrogen peroxide solution

    This is because random collision between substrate and active site happen more frequently with higher substrate concentrations. Rate of Velocity V = V(max) * Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide Km * (Concentration of Hydrogen Peroxide) Dependent and Independent Variables Dependent (in method referred as DP) * The volume of homogenelized liver ( cm3) Independent (in method referred as IV) * Concentration of different hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) solutions * (rate of enzyme activity) Controlled (in method referred as CV) * Volume of the substrate of Hydrogen Peroxide in each tube (5 cm3)

    • Word count: 2573
  24. Egg Osmosis

    Skills: To observe osmosis in cells. Materials used in portfolio: * Scale * Two chicken eggs * Jar with 10% solution of vinegar * Two beakers * Safranin * Raspberry syrup * Two petrie dish * Scalpel * Round laboratory paper The preparation which were observed: * Two chicken eggs Pre-lab discussion: Transport can be either passive or active. Passive transport is the movement of substances across the membrane without any input of energy by the cell. Active transport is the movement of materials where a cell is required to expend energy.

    • Word count: 1305

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