Animal and plant cell organelles

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Animal and plant cell organelles

The nucleus:- spherical body containing many organelles, including the nucleolus. The nucleus controls many of the functions of the cell (by controlling protein synthesis) and contains DNA (in chromosomes(46  in humans)). The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear membrane.

The nucleolus:. A dark organelle within the nucleus - it is where ribosomal RNA is produced. Some cells have more than one nucleolus.

Cytosol: The cytosol is the "soup" within which all the other cell organelles reside and where most of the cellular metabolism occurs. Though mostly water, the cytosol is full of proteins that control cell metabolism including signal transduction pathways, glycolysis, intracellular receptors, and transcription factors. Cytoplasm is a collective term for the cytosol plus the organelles suspended within the cytosol.

The centrosome, also called the "microtubule organizing center", is an area in the cell where microtubles are produced. Within an animal cell centrosome there is a pair of small organelles, the centrioles. The two centrioles are arranged such that one is perpendicular to the other. During animal cell division, the centrosome divides and the centrioles replicate (make new copies). The result is two centrosomes, each with its own pair of centrioles.

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The Golgi apparatus is a membrane-bound structure with a single membrane. It is actually a stack of membrane-bound vesicles that are important in packaging macromolecules for transport elsewhere in the cell. The stack of larger vesicles is surrounded by numerous smaller vesicles containing those packaged macromolecules.

Lysosomes contain hydrolytic enzymes necessary for intracellular digestion. They have a ph close to 0 inside them. They are common in animal cells, but rare in plant cells.

Peroxisomes are membrane-bound packets of oxidative enzymes. In plant cells, peroxisomes play a variety of roles including converting fatty acids to sugar. In animal cells, ...

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