Causes of Alzheimers Disease

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Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease, or simply known as Alzheimer’s, is kind of disease that affects the brain. Alzheimer’s is a type progressive disease, which means that the disease will gradually worsen over time.

Alzheimer’s is the most common form of dementia, which is a term used to describe a brain disorder that causes the loss of memory and other intellectual skills such as thinking skills, problem-solving, language and social skills.

Cause of Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s brain tissues tend to have less nerve cells and synapses as they are destroyed by plagues and tangles. Plagues are clusters of protein fragments called beta-amyloid that are built up between the nerve cells. Tangles are made up of twisted strands of protein called tau.

Beta-amyloid is a fragment of a protein found in the neuron’s cell membrane called amyloid precursor protein (APP). APP is a transmembrane protein, which means the APP molecule passes through the cell membrane of neuron. In order for beta-amyloid to be released from the APP molecule, two enzymes must be involved which are beta-secretase and gamma-secretase.
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First, beta-secretase cut the peptide chain of APP outside the cell membrane at a certain length. Then the gamma-secretase makes a cut inside the membrane, releasing the beta-amyloid.

The beta-amyloid released will be in two forms, one which has 40 amino acids and another one with 42 amino acids. The beta-amyloid peptide with 42 amino acids is the one that will cause the Alzheimer’s disease.

Initially, beta-amyloid starts as a single molecule but tends to accumulate and gradually build up to become hard, insoluble plagues. These plagues may stick to the nerve cells, ...

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