Effect of Incandescent, Fluorescent and LED lights at 900 lumens on the concentration of vitamin C content in oranges and their effectiveness on metabolic efficiency

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Title: The Effect of Incandescent, Fluorescent, and Led Light At 900 lumens On The Concentration of

Vitamin C Present In Oranges and Their Effectiveness On Metabolic Efficiency

Research Question: How do light sources LED, Incandescent and Fluorescent at the light intensity of

900 lumens affect the concentration of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) found in oranges?

Personal Engagement:

The most common fact and analogy people know about orange is that it is a great source of Vitamin C, also known as Ascorbic Acid. To this day, my parents would advise me to eat oranges, convinced that it will cure my flu and boost my immunity. In addition, when starting my weight loss journey, I was advised by my nutritionist to eat an orange a day claiming it would boost my metabolism and efficiency of weight loss due to vitamin C present in oranges. However, I was skeptical to their

claims and wondered if there's a way to measure the actual abundance of Vitamin C in oranges and if any factors in our daily life come in the way of vitamin C concentration and its capabilities. After covering metabolism as part of our IB biology course, I want to investigate how the abundance of the concentration of vitamin C affects the activity of our metabolism.


Vitamin C, also known as Ascorbic acid, is an essential nutrient for the human body. It is necessary for various metabolic functions and its deficiency can cause scurvy. Vitamin-C entering our body by rich sources are absorbed by simple diffusion and active transport (Sinha). However, do not remain hence need to constantly replenish your body with the correct abundance if nutrients. Furthermore, light exposure and intensity play a role in ascorbic acids abundance in oranges. For this investigation, I will be using different light bulbs like incandescent, led and fluorescent lights to test at which light source is optimum condition for storage of oranges and the levels of vitamin C it contains.

Incandescent generate light by use of filaments and when power is applied, the filament glows generating heat and therefore light. Due to incandescent bulbs hot filament, they produce a continuous spectrum as all wavelengths of lights are present (Fielder 1).  On the other hand, led produces lights through a cold process as it is stimulated by electron movement, hence creating photons, therefore, visible light and its wavelength is the only thing emitted by led bulbs (Lighting Division  1). Fluorescent lighting uses electricity to excite mercury gas and in the process emits ultraviolet light (Nave).

For my investigation, I will be using the titration method to measure the abundance of ascorbic acid in different lights incandescent, led and fluorescent light at 900 lumens to find out the best light to store orange juice in that does not significantly affect the abundance of ascorbic acid present in oranges.

Hypothesis: All light types Incandescent, Fluorescent, and LED light will have an effect on the concentration of vitamin C remaining, however, Incandescent light at 900 lumens will have the greatest effect on the concentration of vitamin C  due to hot filaments present in the light bulb.


Independent Variables:  Light types at a light intensity of 900 lumens. Lumens are the quantity of light emitted by the light source and are identified through the wattage of different lights. 12 watts  LED light,

15 watts fluorescent light and 60 watts incandescent light were chosen as they are equivalent to 900

lumens and are the standard potentials of each light types. Conversion from 900 lumens to watts taken from (rapid tables.com).

Light- emitting diode (LED) Light                              12 watts Fluorescent Light                                                         15 watts Incandescent Light                                                       60 watts

Dependent Variable:

-        The concentration of vitamin C after solution placed under each light source at 900 lumens in the dependent variable.

-     Concentration will be measured by finding the difference (initial- final volume) and plugging it in

concentration equation  C =  n  =


                                         3.97 ×10 −4 mols         

(V ) F inal volume(mL) − Initial volume of titration of vitamin C(mL)


-        The volume difference will be gotten from performing titration and taking note of initial volume when the ascorbic acid solution( modeling the vitamin C content in orange) is applied into titration burette and final volume when the right amount of ascorbic acid solution is titrated into

0.01M of DCPIP.

Controlled Variables:

Controlled Variable                     How is it being controlled         Why is it controlled

The quantity of light emitted: Incandescent, led, and fluorescent light bulbs will emit

900 lumens of light.

Each light bulb will be bought at wattage corresponding to

900 lumens hence, Incandescent light at 60 watts. Fluorescent light at 15 watts. LED light at 12 watts.

Amount of light emitted (Lumens) is kept controlled in order to have reliable numbers when calculating the concentration of vitamin C remaining. If the lumens of each light source is not controlled, it affects the concentration of ascorbic acid (vitamin C ) and data collected cannot be compared.

Duration of reaction: 15-minute duration of a sample of ascorbic acid solution placed under each light type.

This will be done by starting a

15-minute timer the moment the ascorbic acid solution sample is placed under the type of light

A time frame is placed on the duration at which solution of vitamin C is placed under the light so all samples get an equal amount of light penetration. If time was not controlled, it would affect the consistency of the vitamin C content in the ascorbic acid solution. This would have been further noticeable as the volume of ascorbic acid titrated into indicator

0.01M DCPIP solution would be inconsistent and depending on the random duration of each trial, the color of DCPIP solution would take

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a longer or shorter time to change color.

Distance: 10 cm distance from solution in 250 ml beaker to the light bulb.

Throughout all the trials, a ruler is used to measure the distance between the light bulb to the solution in the beaker to be 10 cm.

A fixed distance of 10cm  between light bulb and solution is present so wavelength of light penetrates solution with the same intensity throughout all trials of the same light bulb. This helps give a better, more reliable result for the concentration of vitamin C remaining after titration ...

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