Investigating Macromolecules and their Properties

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“Investigating Macromolecules and their Properties”



        There are many nutrients that are present in an organism that provides it energy in order to grow and reproduce. Some nutrients are required in larger amounts compared to others. These nutrients, that are required in larger amounts, are known as macromolecules. Identifying and distinguishing these macromolecules can be beneficial to scientists. Knowing these macromolecules and how they are shaped can help scientists and doctors create healthy diet systems, and discover many diseases that are caused by their deficiencies. With advanced technologies, scientists are constantly trying to develop new ways to identify these molecules.  

Macromolecules are made up of large and complex organic molecules. They are grouped in four different categories. These are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. In this investigation, we will identify different macromolecules and their properties.


Identify and determine the different types of solutions (sugar, protein, starch, and triglyceride) and their properties.


The Biuret reagent (KNaC4H4O6·4H2O) is made up of  (KOH) and  (CuSO4). This blue reagent turns violet in the presence of proteins, and turns pink when combined with short-chain  (which are simplest form of proteins). Since proteins are made up of amino acids, and amino acids react with Biuret reagent, one of our solutions which would be a protein will turn either pink or violet depending on the complexity and concentration of the protein. (MadSci Network).

Benedict’s solution is a chemical reagent used to identify s (simplest form of carbohydrates, also known as simple sugars). It is prepared from ,  and . The solution changes its color according to the concentration of monosaccharides present. It will change into different colors starting from blue (with no monosaccharides present), then green, then yellow, then orange, then red, and then brick red or brown (with high concentration of monosaccharides present). Since sugar contains monosacharides, it will change its color. What color will it change to, would be determined by the concentration of sugar that we will add. (Wikipedia)

Iodine solution is prepared by dissolving iodine in an aqueous solution of . It turns into deep blue-black color in the presence of starch. Since one of our beakers will contain starch, it will turn blue-black. (Wikipedia)

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Lipids have certain properties that distinguish them from other macromolecules. Lipids do not dissolve in water and instead form a new layer on top of the water. Some substances dissolve lipids in higher amounts compared to other substances. Brown paper is such a substance. It absorbs lipids in high amounts but absorbs only small portions of other substances. Triglyceride is a form of lipid and will be absorbed by the brown paper. (Biology Web) 


        Manipulated variable is the variable that the experimenter decides to change to see whether there is or there isn’t an effect on the ...

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