Research Notes - Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology

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Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology


Recombinant DNA Technology

  • Identification and isolation of the desired gene or DNA fragment to be cloned.
  •  Insertion of the isolated gen in a suitable vector.
  •  Introduction of this vector into a suitable organism or cell called host (transformation).
  •  Selection of the transformed host cell, and
  •  Multiplication /expression/ integration followed by expression of the introduced gene in the host. A brief description of these steps is given in the following sections. 
  • Uses:
  • With the recombinant DNA technology, scientists have been able to generate artificial enzymes and chemicals found inside humans to treat those suffering from their deficiency.
  • Scientists have developed a number of advances that can be used to prevent plants from dying to insects, insecticides, herbicides and even freezing.

Gene Transfer Using Plasmids- E Coli must be used as an example

  • Gene transfer: when a gene is taken from organism A’s DNA and then placed into organism B’s DNA which then creates an effect for that certain gene.
  • Extraction of that gene is usually taken out by the molecular level with computer.
  • Gene is then placed in to Gamete B’s nucleus and artificially fertilized with another gamete cell to form a zygote.
  • New organism is created with modified DNA.
  • E. coli is the most widely studied plasmid in the world. Therefore, is most commonly used.


  •  It has many strains that are fatal to humans. The E. coli gene which produced vitamin k was extracted then added to cows in Africa so the people would receive appropriate amounts of the vitamin. Makes usage of vitamin K pills useless.
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PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction)

  • PCR is a process that uses a DNA photo copier to copy your DNA from just a few segments placed in a test tube.
  • DNA is poured into a thermo cycler and after a few hours while it copies the DNA into millions of identical segments for lab use.    

  • Use:
  • Usually used in a crime scene. If the suspect has a few cells left behind such as cheek cells, skin cells, or saliva, the machines are able to reproduce the DNA. Since you are unable to produce lab ...

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