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International Baccalaureate: Chemistry

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  1. Hous Process for producing Sodium Carbonate

    precipitates and is removed by filtration, and the solution is recycled to produce more sodium carbonate (Na2CO3). (Source 2.) The equation of Hou's process is: (1)NH3+H2O+CO2=NH4HCO3 (2)NH4HCO3+NaCl=NH4Cl+NaHCO3v (3)2NaHCO3=Na2CO3+H2O+CO2� NaCl (saturation) +NH3+H2O+CO2=NH4Cl+NaHCO3v 2NaHCO3==Na2CO3+H2O+CO2� Compare the Solvay process and Hou's process: (source 1.) The advantage of Hou's process is: Hou's process kept the advantage of the Solvay process, but increased the yield from 90% to 96%. The Product ammonium chloride (NH4Cl)

    • Word count: 494
  2. Structure and uses of nylon

    * Superior colorfastness * Excellent abrasion resistance On the other hand, nylon 6 is easy to dye, more readily fades; it has a higher impact resistance, a more rapid moisture absorption, greater elasticity and elastic recovery. Benefit to society 1. Durable and stronger Nylon ropes are stronger and durable than ropes made from natural fiber, which explains why Nylon continues to gain immense popularity. Nylon has more uses than polyester, and is better for industrial use. 2. Flexibility and shock absorber Nylon is more efficient for industrial jobs where the material experience rapid or repeat stress.

    • Word count: 595
  3. How does density of a liquid affect the volume of its drop

    � � Pipette pump � � Measuring cylinder (25cm3) � � Milk (30mL) � � Vegetable oil (30mL) � � Vinegar (30mL) � � Distilled water (30mL) � � Hydrochloric acid (30mL of 2moldm-3) � � Clamp stand Key Variables Independent Variable The densities of the liquid used:- � � Distilled Water- 1.00g/cm3 � � Vegetable Oil- 0.91g/cm3 � � Hydrochloric acid (2moldm-3)-1.19g/cm3 � � Vinegar (Ethanoic acid)- 1.01/cm3 � � Milk-1.03g/cm3 Dependent Variable The volume of a drop Controlled Variable Volume of each liquid used (20cm3)?

    • Word count: 995
  4. Testing for halide ions. The objective of the experiment was: Be able to identify halides using silver nitrate and ammonia.

    and astatide (At-). Halide compounds such as KCl, KBr and KI can be tested with silver nitrate solution, AgNO3. The halogen will react with Ag+ and form a precipitate, with varying colour depending on the halogen. And, then by adding ammonia; the solution is acidified by adding dilute nitric acid. The nitric acid reacts with, and removes, other ions that might also give a confusing precipitate with silver nitrate. Procedure: * Potassium halides (potassium chloride, potassium bromide, potassium iodide) were placed into different three test tubes up to the height of 1ml. * Silver nitrate was added in all the three test tubes, containing potassium halides until a precipitate formed. * The colour of the three solutions was recorded.

    • Word count: 830
  5. Free essay

    pH titration curves Lab Report. How does the use of a strong acid with a strong base and the use of weak acid with a strong base affect the pH titration curves?

    - Burette The same burette will be used when finding the neutralization points for both parts of the experiment. Thus, this can decrease the percentage of error and accuracy of reading the results within the experiment. - Type of base solution NaOH is a strong base solution. It will be used throughout the experiment for both parts. The use of different strong base solutions can result in different neutralization points. Hence, inaccurate results can be collected that would affect the pH titration curve. - pH indicator Phenolphthalein is a universal pH indicator that is used for most titrations. Phenolphthalein will be used throughout the experiment.

    • Word count: 1048
  6. Change of Potential Difference in Voltaic Cells Lab Report

    Each half-reaction has a different reduction potential; the difference of two reduction potentials gives the voltage of the cell. Research Question How does the use of different concentrations of copper sulfate solution (half-cell solution) affect the potential difference in a Voltaic Cell? Hypothesis A voltaic cell with a higher concentration of copper sulfate solution will increase the potential difference between the two half-cells. Variables Independent Variable The use of different concentrations for Copper Sulfate solution; 0.2 M, 0.4 M, 0.6 M, 0.8 M, 1.0 M Dependent Variable The change in potential difference (voltage) between the two half-cells of a voltaic cell.

    • Word count: 4430
  7. Question: How the concentration of acid (HCl) can be determined by titrating it using base (NaOH)?

    6- Take readings of PH value using the PH meter, after each drop. 7- When HCl color turns to blue, immediately stop adding NaOH, this indicates the neutralization point. 8- To be sure that HCl is neutralized add few drops of NaOH on HCl. 9- Repeat the experiment to obtain more accurate data. Data collection and processing: The table below shows the values of PH recorded over the five trials and indicates the neutralization point at a specific volume of NaOH added: (1.0) table shows the data collected during the trials Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 19.3 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.3 13.3 19.4 13.5 13.4 13.5 13.3 13.4

    • Word count: 782
  8. Chemistry report - The aim of this practical is to observe the difference in the reactivity between Mg and Ca when hot and cold water is added.

    * Phenolphthalein * Beaker * Cold and hot water * Sandpaper * Test tubes with rack Procedure 1. The Magnesium was cleaned with sandpaper. 2. Two pieces of magnesium was put into two test tubes and two pieces of calcium was put into two test tubes. 3. Cold water was added into two test tubes one with calcium one with magnesium. 4. Two droplets of phenolphalein were added in each of the test tubes filled with cold water to observe the change in ph.

    • Word count: 455
  9. In this experiment, the effect of concentration on rate of reaction was investigated. We did this by reacting marble chips (calcium carbonate) with hydrochloric acid,

    How does reaction rate change according to concentration? Based on our processed data, the lower the concentration the faster the reaction. This also means that the higher the concentration, the slower the reaction. 2. Why is the cotton wool plug needed? The cotton wool plug is needed to absorb the amount of carbon dioxide released. It acts as a sponge in absorbing the gas expelled from the conical flask. The cotton wool is weighed beforehand and then after absorbing carbon dioxide, to find the mass of carbon dioxide released.

    • Word count: 1349
  10. Determining the empirical formula of magnesium oxide lab

    0.004114mol/0.004114mol=1 0.004375mol/0.004114mol=1.06 Therefore the empirical formula of the magnesium oxide is MgO Trial two: Magnesium Oxygen Mass/g 9.55g-9.42g=0.13g 10.02g-9.55=0.07g Moles /mol 0.13g/24.31gmol-1 =0.005348mol 0.07g/16.00gmol-1 =0.004375 Simplest ratio 0.005348mol/0.004375mol=1.22 0.004375mol/0.004375mol=1 Since multiplying the ratio by five gives the closest values to whole numbers, therefore the empirical formula of the oxide is Mg6O5. The third trial was not taken into account because the mass after combustion was not recorded. Uncertainty calculations: The uncertainties for masses in both tables will be: 0.01+0.01=0.02g Table one: Here are the calculations for the uncertainty for the number of moles of magnesium: 0.02g/.10g�100%=20% (the uncertainty for the molecular mass is taken as zero)

    • Word count: 948
  11. Molar Heat combustion chemistry - investigate the effect of molar mass on the molar heat of combustion of adjacent members of a homologous alcohol series.

    Measure 100g of water into an aluminium can and clamp it in position above the spirit burner. 3. Insert the thermometer and cotton wool plug into opening of the can (ensure that the thermometer does not touch the bottom of the can). 4. Record the initial temperature of the water. 5. Select an alcohol burner and ensure that there is at least 20 cm3 of the alcohol in the burner. 6. Weigh the burner and its contents. 7. Place the burner under the centre of the flask (shield from drafts)

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  12. Drugs and Medicine Options Report. Prior to ever considering working a medicine or drug into the bloodstream, a long and extensive set of procedures must be carried out.

    One of the most common ways that this is done is through oral ingestion with tablets, syrups, or drops. These oral methods are much slower than the rest because of how much slower the rate of absorption into the bloodstream from the stomach is. A more common way as far as more extreme medicines go is something like an IV, where a needle is stuck directly into a vein so that the medicine is immediately worked into the bloodstream. However, the oral methods will most likely remain the most common because of how comfortably and easily they can be ingested by people.

    • Word count: 1214
  13. Food Chemistry Options Report - many different areas must be understood such as oxidative rancidity and how a food begins to rot, Antioxidants and how they can prevent such behavior, and Stereochemistry in foods to allow for the identification and better

    One of the most common forms of Oxidative Rancidity is the way by which oxygen molecules react with fat structures. As this reaction occurs, longer chains of fatty acids are made to shorter ones because of the releases of hydroxide. Since these fats are typically less energized, an oxidation like this normally occurs with unsaturated fats since their one free radical makes them much easier to react with. It is important to realize the difference between oxidative rancidity and hydrolytic is the fact that oxidative rancidity is always caused by the reaction of oxygen molecules in the air with the fatty structures around them.

    • Word count: 996
  14. Effect of Concentration on Electrochemical Cell Potential Using Nernst Equation

    The Nernst's equation is used to calculate the voltage of an electrochemical cell or to find the concentration of one of the components of the cell. The Nernst equation can be applied to find the cell potential of electrodes in any concentration by relating the cell potentials to its standard cell potential. Nernst Equation Ecell = E0cell - (RT/nF)lnQ Ecell = cell potential under nonstandard conditions (V) E0cell = cell potential under standard conditions R = gas constant, which is 8.31 (volt-coulomb)/(mol-K)

    • Word count: 1005
  15. Equilibrium Lab - Restoring Balance. The solubility of iodine increases because the position of equilibrium has shifted towards the triiodide side of the reaction. Addition of the reactants causes an increase in the product which is directly related t

    will cause the position of equilibrium to shift towards the products to compensate for the change. More products are a result of increased solubility of Ammonium Chloride with water when temperature is increased. Post Lab Questions 1. CoCl42- ions are present in this solution as they are blue colored and the color of the Cobalt Chloride solution was blue when we recorded the color and appearance of the solution. 2. Co(H2O)62+ ion was favored by the addition of water as it is pink colored and when we added water to the cobalt chloride solution, it became pink.

    • Word count: 640
  16. Viscosity lab. Research question:- How is the viscosity of water affected by changing temperature?

    - Stopwatch - cloth towel. -fire source to boil water. -safety equipment like : lab coat, protection glass, etc. Method:- - Cold water from the refrigerator was put into the spherical burette and was left inside the spherical burette for a few minutes in order to reduce the burette's temperature. (this process was conducted to guarantee that there will be a very small difference between the temperature of the water relative to the temperature of the burette, in order to help slowing down any temperature transfer to guarantee that water inside the burette will remain very cold.) - Water that was used to cool the burette was replaced with another sample of water from a refrigerator.

    • Word count: 1095
  17. Lab #2 Water Hydration of Copper(II) Sulfate. Purpose- To determine the formula of the hydrate from the anhydrous compound.

    3) Heat the crucible for about five minutes to fully sanitize it. 4) Stop heating and remove the crucible from the clay triangle onto the wire gauze and allow it to cool for about five minutes. 5) Place the crucible on the balance to find its mass. Record this data. 6) Add the copper (II) sulfate into the crucible using the spatula. 7) Place the crucible with the hydrate onto the clay triangle and begin to heat it for about five minutes. Record any observations. 8) Remove the crucible and transfer it to the wire gauze so that it can cool for two minutes.

    • Word count: 714
  18. Gas Law Stoichiometry Through Airbag Simulation. The purpose of this lab is to determine the correct ratio of baking soda and vinegar that leaves leaves no appreciable amount of either reactant leftover and yet fully inflates the bag without bursting.

    Pour first trial amount of vinegar into bag and put it in one corner 5) Add baking soda and put it in another corner 6) Close the bag 7) Mix the two and shake the bag 8) Repeat with different amounts of vinegar Data- HC2H3O2 (mL) NaHCO3 (g) 25 4.83 30 4.84 69.1 4.84 62.2 4.84 Calculations- 1.0036(1.4)=n(.0821)(297) V= 1460 mL T=297 K P=1.0036 atm 1.405=24.38n n=.0575 CO2 .0575 moles CO2 x 84.01 grams baking soda ------------------------------------------------------ = 4.835 grams baking soda 1 mole Conclusions - We demonstrated that although it is possible to calculate the amount of solute needed to react it is not possible to determine the amount of solvent needed by using the combined gas law.

    • Word count: 656
  19. Graham's law. In this experiment the relationship between the molar mass of a gas and the speed with which it diffuses was to be assessed.

    Based on this fact that no outside factors will influence the experiment we can directly plug our values into Graham's Law. Errors could have happened from gas escaping and can be prevented by more immediate actions. Purpose To demonstrate the relationship between the molar mass of a gas and the speed with which it diffuses. Materials In the hood: NH3 17 M, HCL 12M Cotton swabs Acetone Glass tube(60 cm in length) Meter stick Procedure First, three glass tubes were placed on a level table.

    • Word count: 472
  20. Ideal Gas Constant Lab

    = .0362 grams = .0015 mol Mg = limiting reagent 24.13 g Mg Ratio between Mg and H2 is 1:1, therefore moles of H2 produced: .0015 mol H2 Calculating gas constant: PV= nRT Trial 1: 101.27( .032) = (.0015)R ( 298) = 7.25 J/mol * K Trial 2: 101.27(.0322) = (.0015)R (298) = 7.30 J/mol * K Trial 3: 101.27(.0323) = (.0015)R (298) = 7.32 J/mol * K (� .001 J/mol * K) Observations: Almost seconds after the eudiometer tube is inverted into the water, you can see the HCl acid sinking down through the water.

    • Word count: 766
  21. Stoichiometry Lab Report. Aim: To determine what solid product is produced in the decomposition of NaHCO3, based on the pre-calculated mass of the solid products versus the mass found in the experiment.

    In decomposition of carbonates it is knows that carbon dioxide and water is almost always one of the products. However with others it is metal oxide and carbon dioxide. You can see this from the balanced equations because carbon dioxide is a bi-product in all three cases. The second branch that this experiment explores is stoichiometry. It deals with the quantitative relationships between the reactants and the products in chemical reactions. The quantitative relationships primarily cover the ratio of moles between the different reactants and products in a reaction.

    • Word count: 1100
  22. Acid Base Titration Lab Report. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the concentration of a solution of Sodium hydroxide by titration against a standard solution of Potassium hydrogenphtalate.

    Trials Volume of acid/cm3 (�0.06cm3) Volume of NaOH used/cm3 (�0.04cm3) (�1 drop) Number of phenolphthalein drops used (�1drop) Initial burette reading/cm3 (�0.02 cm3) Final burette reading/cm3 (�0.02 cm3) 1 25.00 26.55 3 9.25 35.80 2 25.00 26.59 2 9.52 36.11 3 25.00 26.65 2 6.90 33.55 4 25.00 26.54 2 7.97 34.51 Calculations for Trial 1 In this experiment, trials 1, 2, and 4 will be used as they are considered accurate. Trial 3 will not be used and will be regarded as the inaccurate result.

    • Word count: 1435
  23. Universal Gas Constant Lab. Aim: To determine the universal constant for gases by collecting gas from a neutralization reaction and determining the volume and pressure of the gas and then the partial pressure of the gas formed.

    = 45cm3 = 0.045dm3 Number of moles of H2(g) = (0.045/24) = 0.001875moles Ratio of Mg(s) to H2(g) = 1:1 => 0.001875 moles of Mg(s) => 0.001875 * 24.305 = 0.0455g � 0.04g Universal Gas Constant: P.V = n.r.T � r = (P.V)/(n.T) => R = (104.3 * 0.045)/(0.001875 * (24.5+273)) = 8.41 K-1 mol-1 => Percentage Error = {(8.41-8.31)/8.31} * 100 = 1.2% Qualitative Observations: * Colorless gas bubbles observed. * Concentration swirls observed. * Significant effervescence noticed close to the magnesium ribbon. * Colorless gas produced slowly then almost instantaneously the rate at which the colorless gas is being produced speeds up rapidly.

    • Word count: 800
  24. Determining the effect of carbon chain length of an alcohol on its fuel efficiency

    * Put the 20.00 grams of water in the calorimeter and record its temperature using a probe of thermometer. * Support the calorimeter on the clamp and stand it over the spirit burner containing methanol, the liquid alcohol to be tested. * Weigh the spirit burner, record its mass and replace the burner under the calorimeter and light the wick. * Note: Make sure the stopper remains on the spirit burner up until the spirit burner is lit to prevent alcohol from evaporating thus leading to a change in mass. * Light the spirit burner and use the thermometer or probe to stir the water at all times it is being heated. Heat the water until it reaches 300C.

    • Word count: 1312
  25. IB Chem lab. Once all twelve chemicals observations were recorded we started to experiment by mixing individual chemicals with other chemicals and recorded observations based on what we saw

    To start with we had twelve individual chemicals to observe, on each chemical we check for states, (meaning liquid, solid or gas), color and odor if any. Once all twelve chemical's observations were recorded we started to experiment by mixing individual chemicals with other chemicals and recorded observations based on what we saw during the reacting and then the final state or the result.

    • Word count: 412

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