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# Determining the Formula of an Unknown Hydrate

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Introduction

Determining the Formula of an Unknown Hydrate Data Collection Table 1. Mass of objects and compounds before and after the experiment. Object/Compound Mass before burning (g � 0.01 g) Mass after burning (g � 0.01 g) Evaporating Dish 23.27 23.27 Copper (II) Sulfate Hydrate CuSO4 4.01 2.60 Epsom Salts, MgSO4 4.00 2.01 Table 2. Qualitative data of compounds before heating Compound Colour Clarity Form Copper (II) Sulfate Hydrate CuSO4 Light blue with dark blue chucks Opaque Powder with small oval chunks Epsom Salts MgSO4 White Opaque Small round chunks Table 3. Qualitative data of compounds after heating Compound Colour Clarity Form Copper (II) Sulfate Hydrate CuSO4 White in the middle, then light blue and olive green around the edge Opaque Powder Epsom Salts MgSO4 White Opaque Harden power Sample Calculations Calculating Molar mass of Epsom salts Addition of all atoms' atomic masses in compound Formula: MgSO4 Atomic Masses: Mg- 24.31 g/mol S- 32.065 g/mol O- 16 g/mol (1x 24.31) + (1x 32.065) ...read more.

Middle

Molar mass of anhydrate salt (g/mol) Moles of anhydrate (mol) Mass of H2O (g � 0.02) Molar Mass of H2O (g/mol) Moles of H2O (mol) Water to Salt Ratio Copper (II) Sulfate 2.60 159.615 0.0163 � 0.0001 1.40 18.02 0.078 � 0.001 5:1 Epsom Salt 2.01 120.375 0.0167 � 0.0002 1.99 18.02 0.111 � 0.001 7:1 Conclusion The final equations that was concluded after the experiment and the calculations are CuSO4 � 5H2O and MgSO4 � 5H2O. There are 5 water molecules per Copper (II) Sulphate and 7 water molecules per Magnesium Sulphate. The compounds are all hydrates which is a substance that contains water. This occurs when crystals form from the evaporation of an aqueous solution of a salt and water molecules become included into the crystal. The hydrates were heated and lost its water of hydration and made it possible to calculate how much water was in the hydrate and the water to salt ratio. ...read more.

Conclusion

Also we could have also just used sulfate hydrate to observe how adding another element affect the water and salt ratio. Overheating of the substances The hydrates were heated under the Bunsen burner and were left under the heat for too long. This could alter the result by lowering the mass, which would increase the water to salt ratio. Mixing the powder to evenly distribute the heat to prevent overheating the salt. Not letting the substance cool before weighing it This would raise the mass of the anhydrate because the water molecules would not be entirely evaporated making the substance left heavier. Having more patience and letting the salt completely cool before weighing Oval chunks of CuSO4 remain after burning Not all of the water of hydration has been removed which will throw off the result by decreasing the mole of water and the increase the final water to salt ratio. Break up the chunks before heating or while heating. ...read more.

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