#### bio note taking

What note-taking method has been used? ________________________________________________________________________ Realizing that everyone has an individual note-taking and handwriting style, do the notes appear to be legible and readable? ?? YES ??NO Why or why not? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ In your opinion, does the overall organization of the notes lend itself to success? ? YES ? NO Why or why not? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What did you like about this set of notes?

• Word count: 876
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Chemistry

#### Greenhouse Gas Lab

Investigating the Specific Heat Capacity of Greenhouse Gases: Methane and Carbon Dioxide Purpose: The purpose of this lab was to investigate the SHC of two specific green house gases which are methane and carbon dioxide. A plastic container was used to represent a closed system. Inside, it was filled with the greenhouse gas and a light bulb which was placed inside as the heat energy emitted would represent the effects of global warming. Data Calculations and Processing: In order to calculate the total energy of the system, we calculated the power in watts of the bulb used which will then be used to calculate the total energy in the system. This was done using the values of current and volts of the bulb. Voltage of Bulb: 2.5v Current: 0.3A We can use the equation W=IxV to calculate the power of the bulb. 2.5x0.3=0.75W or 0.75Js-1 The bulb was turned on for 16 minutes or 16x60=960s Therefore total energy of the system--> 0.75x960=720 J of energy However, not all this energy is heat energy, since some of it can be emitted as light. Roughly 35% is emitted as light leaving 65% as heat energy.1 Therefore, the bulb emits 0.65x720=468 J or 0.468 kJ of heat energy. By filling the container to the brim with water, we used a measuring cylinder to measure the volume of the water which was to be: 992mL The theoretical specific heat capacity2 of methane was found to be

• Word count: 1437
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Chemistry

#### Determining the Formula of an Unknown Hydrate

Determining the Formula of an Unknown Hydrate Determining the Formula of an Unknown Hydrate Question: What is the chemical formula of copper(II) sulphate hydrate? Materials: Analytical balance, 4g of CuSO4 • H2O(s), Porcelain crucible and lid, crucible tongs, wire gauze, laboratory burner, retort stand, ring clamp, and clay triangle. Observation: Quantitative Observations Objects Trial 1 Trial 2 Lid with Crucible 22.94 g + 0.001 g 22.96 g + 0.001 g Lid, Crucible and Copper(II) Sulphate Hydrate 27.03 g + 0.001 g 27.07 g + 0.001 g Lid, Crucible and dehydrated copper(II) sulphate 25.56 g + 0.001 g 25.57 g + 0.001 g After Heating for another 10-15 minutes 25.56 g + 0.001 g 25.60 g + 0.001 g Qualitative Observation * Copper (II) Sulphate Hydrate was dark blue, and not fine powder before the reaction. It changed its colour to very light blue after heating for 15 minutes. The powder, as a result, that was formed was very fine and easily came off when dumping in the garbage. It did not stick to the crucible. * Evaporation was taking place. Analysis . Use the evidence obtained to calculate the mass of hydrate that you used. Trial 1: Trial 2: 2. Calculate the mass of water of hydration lost and the mass of the dehydrated salt remaining. To calculate mass of water of hydration lost: Trial 1: Trial 2: To calculate the mass of the dehydrated salt

• Word count: 757
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Chemistry

#### Fractional distillation of crude oil

Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil Aim: To investigate the substances given off at different temperatures from crude oil (petroleum) mixture. Apparatus: * Fractional Distillation glassware and thermometer * Clamp stand x 2 * Conical flask * Supply of cold water * Rubber tubes x 2 * Test tube rack * Small glass test tubes x 5 * Rubber stopper x 5 * Evaporating basin * Micro Bunsen Burner and bench mat * Wooden Splint * Stopwatch * Boiling stones * Crude Oil supply Method: . Set up the clamps stands and the fractionating glassware as shown in the diagram. 2. Connect the rubber tubes to the two open tubes of the condenser. 3. Connect the other end of the rubber tubing to a water tap and let the other one flow into a basin. Turn on the tap. 4. Place two boiling stones into the conical flask and then pour in the crude oil into the flask. Place the flask right above the micro-burner as shown in the diagram. 5. Heat the crude oil mixture slowly. Record at which temperature one of the compounds in the mixture evaporate, and then collect it in the small test tube after it passes through the condenser. 6. Repeat step 5 until maximum temperature has been reached and/or no more compounds evaporate. 7. Test the compounds which were collected. Light them in an evaporating basin and record the time it takes to run out. Results: Data Table of Results of

• Word count: 722
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Chemistry

#### Allotropes of Carbon

Allotropes of Carbon Allotropes. People may not know what this word means when they first hear it. They will have no idea, of course, since this word is a chemistry terminology. Allotropes are two or more forms of the same element with the same physical state such as gas, liquid, or a solid. They differ from each other mainly in their physical properties, and sometimes in their chemical properties. Now, carbon is one of the common allotropes known in Chemistry, and also in the world around us. For example, if you take diamond, the hardest solid object known to man, is an allotrope of carbon. Diamonds are mostly known for its jewelry, and for its high melting point. A diamond is indeed, a solid state and has the same properties as carbon. Another allotrope of carbon is graphite. In graphite, the layers are linked together with weak forces by Van de Waal's forces. Graphite is used for pencil leads, and is also known that it is insoluble in water. This is because there are very weak Van der Waal's attractions between the carbon atoms and the water molecules, whereas the carbon atoms are bonded very tightly to one another. Fullerenes is another allotrope for carbon. Fullerene is a recently discovered allotrope for carbons, and have very similar properties with graphite, as it is soft and slippery, brittle, electrical insulator, and insoluble in water. The reason why it is

• Word count: 403
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Chemistry

#### Alternative Fuels

Alternative Fuels For decades, since modern transportation had been in existence vehicles engines have required fuel that has always been created with fossil fuels. The use of fossil fuels to create fuel has not been a major problem until recently. Recently the price of fuels created by fossil fuels has sprung and we are now just beginning to notice the effect it has on the environment. In fact, studies have shown that 1/4 of energy- related green house gasses are a direct result of transportation pollution1. In this essay, I will look into alternative fuels, which are not created using fossil fuels. Our dependence on fossil fuels had caused a global problem. Over the years, our environment had suffered in areas such as global warming, air quality deterioration and acid rain. Over the past 150 years, our use of fossil fuels has resulted in an increase of carbon dioxide of over twenty-five percent2. When combustion takes place, harmful gases are released into the air, which cause our air quality to worsen in condition. Some examples of fuels that are released are carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide. Different types of sulfur oxides and hydrocarbons are released from the combustion of these fossil fuels 2. When these gases are released into the environment, they cause smog and other signs of pollution. These are two major problems that are caused by burning fossil

• Word count: 1129
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Chemistry

#### charles law

Charles Law Anabel Castro Chemistry III IB Planning A Research question: Hypothesis: Variables (Independant): Temperature (Dependant): Volume of water in graduate cylinder (Controlled): glass beaker, graduate cylinder Planning B Materials: * Thermometer * 10.0 mL graduate cylinder * 500 mL beaker Method: Data Collection Temperature in Volume mL Celsius Degrees (+/- 0.01) Data Analysis

• Word count: 500
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Chemistry

#### Chemical Equilibrium

Chemical Equilibrium Application In Industry Jerry 4/26/2010 Modern Industry, bereft of all hindering technological barriers, and open to further developments in the area of economical assurance. Having once been in the cobwebbed corner of the closet, industry has now flourished into being something of the imagination. Chemically speaking, Equilibrium is perhaps one of the most important branches protruding from the hulking tree of industrial facilitation. The Haber Process, Ammonia synthesis at its best, is only a mere first of many beneficial outcomes of Chemical Equilibrium. Following Le Chatelier's Principle of Equilibrium, the Haber Process operates on the nitrogen fixation reaction of naturally occurring Nitrogen and Hydrogen gases. This particular process is of utmost importance because of the difficulty of Ammonia gas production, which of course is responsible for sustaining much of human agriculture. The world is constantly reminded by Le Chatelier's Principle, recalling the vital theory of Equilibrium: In order to maximize the amount of product in the reaction mixture, it should be carried out at low temperature and high pressure. Still working accordingly to the aforementioned theory, Fritz Haber was faced with quite an irksome dilemma: Since Ammonia gas production had such a negligible yield, it was only to be noted that the reaction favoured low temperatures

• Word count: 837
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Chemistry

#### Finding the empirical formula of magnesium oxide

Mohamad Zulhilmi bin Azmi 930813-05-5385 Chemistry HL ________________ INTRODUCTION Magnesium oxide or magnesia, is a white solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium. Magnesium oxide is hygroscopic in nature and care must be taken to take it from moisture. Magnesium oxide is easily made by burning magnesium ribbon which oxidises in a bright white light, resulting in a powder. It is formed by an ionic bond between magnesium and oxygen atom in a certain ratio of magnesium to oxygen. Empirical formula is the simplest whole ratio number of all elements present in the compound. It does not express the real composition of a molecule as molecular formula. For instance, the empirical formula of glucose (molecular formula = C6H12O6) is CH2O, and the empirical formula of hydrogen peroxide (molecular formula = H2O2) is HO. An experiment will be carried out to determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide, you will react elemental magnesium with elemental, atmospheric oxygen, to generate magnesium oxide. Mg(s) + O2(g) → MgxOy(s) AIM To determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide HYPOTHESIS Empirical formula of Magnesium oxide is MgO. The simplest ratio of moles of magnesium atom to moles of oxygen atom is one to one (1:1). VARIABLE Type of variable Method to handle Independent variable . Magnesium ribbon Use a

• Word count: 1043
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Chemistry

#### ACID-BASE titration

Chemistry Lab Report Acid- Base Titration Using a pH Meter Acid- Base Titration Using a pH Meter Data Collection: Strong acid- Strong base titration: Both NaOH (Strong base) and HCl (Strong acid) are colorless. NaOH was placed in a burette to titrate 25.00 cm³ of 0.1 moldm?³ HCl that is poured into a conical flask. A pH electrode was used to measure the pH. During titration there was no color change, neither change in temperature nor smell. Table1: The volume of NaOH added from the burette to HCl in the flask and pH of the resulting solution. # Volume of 0.1moldm?³ NaOH /cm³±0.05 cm³ pH / ±0.1 0 0.00 .2 2.00 .1 2 4.00 .2 3 8.00 .1 4 0.00 .2 5 2.00 .2 6 4.00 .4 7 5.00 .4 8 6.00 .6 9 7.00 .8 0 8.00 .7 1 8.50 .8 2 9.00 .8 3 9.50 .8 4 20.00 2.1 5 20.50 2.2 6 20.70 2.3 7 20.90 2.5 8 21.10 2.8 9 21.20 2.9 20 21.50 3.6 21 21.60 4.7 22 21.80 5.7 23 21.90 5.7 24 22.00 6.1 25 22.10 7.4 26 22.20 8.3 27 22.20 8.4 28 22.30 8.4 29 22.40 8.6 30 22.50 9.0 31 22.70 9.5 32 22.80 9.6 33 22.90 0.0 34 23.00 0.1 35 23.20 0.2 36 23.40 0.6 37 23.60 0.6 38 23.70 0.7 39 23.80 0.8 40 24.00 0.9 41 24.20 0.9 42 24.40 0.9 43 24.60 1.1 44 24.80 1.0 45 25.00 1.0 46 25.20 1.1 47 25.40 1.2 48 25.60 1.1 49 26.00 1.2 50 27.00 1.3 51 28.00 1.4

• Word count: 1136
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Chemistry