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International Baccalaureate: Geography

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 21
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  1. Analysis of Plastic Recycling in Uganda.

    Driessen and Mr. Somani will help me answer the few questions I have about their company. Table of Contents Introduction: 3 Advantages of recycling 6 Disadvantages of recycling 8 Data collected 9 Factors Affecting Uganda's development in recycling 10 Solutions 13 Bibliography; 13 Introduction: Recycling is one of this century's highlights as resources on our planet are perishing and populations growing, we begin to realize that resources on planet today won't sustain the human race for long. One of the solutions to some of the resources being depilated is to collect and separate materials from waste then reuse like aluminum cans and glass bottles which are recast into new cans and bottles.

    • Word count: 2843
  2. Extreme Environment Report - Cumbria. The aim is to investigate a cold and high attitude environment in high mountains in non tropical latitudes.

    The oldest rocks belong to the Ordovitian age (495-443 Ma). They are known as Skiddaw Group and they are represented by 1000 m of grey wackes. This group forms a triangular mountainous zone whose maximum high is 931 meters on Skiddaw itself. They are easy to break in small pieces. Since the formation of this group, the part of Earth's crust known as Lake District passed from the south part of the equator to the current position. The Borrowdale Volcanic Group is made of lavas and pyroclasts erupted during a phase of cataclysmic volcano, 450 million years ago.

    • Word count: 2201
  3. Global Warming, the problem, the potential impacts and alternatives to fossil fuels.

    With temperatures around the world rising because of global warming the average sea temperatures rise of increasing infrared radiation melting the ice in Antarctic and Polar regions. Every year parts of Greenland's ice shelf is melting, the rising water carries out to sea and every year the melting of this ice shelf increases which releases more water into the sea. In Antarctica the surface ice has enough water to rise sea levels over 60 metres. Every year the temperature of the ice in is increasing which indicates rapid increase in sea levels. Category 2 - Showing your understanding (10 points)

    • Word count: 2182
  4. Turkmenistan case study

    These canals will be a continuation of the pattern of water management that was started during Soviet times. The Karakum Canal is the longest irrigation and water supply canal which has a length of 1,375km which takes 13 cubic kilometres of water annually from the Amu Darya (major river from north of Turkmenistan). The flow in these large canals is controlled by a series of large hydraulic structures which allow water to be diverted for irrigation into many branch canals.

    • Word count: 2613
  5. Disease case study

    Central Europe 760 000 Oceania 75 000 East Asia 800 000 South and South-East Asia 4.0million The people suffering from AIDS are unevenly distributed throughout the world, some areas have high percentage of people living with HIV, others have very low percentage of people living with HIV. Although African Americans represent about 13% of the population, they accounted for 48% of new HIV or AIDS diagnoses in 2005. AIDS was the fourth leading cause of death among African Americans aged 25-44 years in the United States in 2004.

    • Word count: 2337
  6. The aim of this geographical report is to find a correlation between the fertility rates and the status of women through the analysis of the indicators of development in different countries of the world, based on published statistics.

    When looking at their discriminate conditions (malnutrition, poor health, lack of education, overwork, unskilled, mistreatment, powerlessness), it seems that the levels of development and growth of the population are low. This essay intends to demonstrate this correlation, also in terms of development's aspects. The interpretation of data is based on a sort of countries' selection, known as the methods of sampling. Two of them (random and systematic), explained later, were used for this investigation. The sample involved two sets of 25 countries each, with low and high income characteristics.

    • Word count: 2288
  7. Migration in MEDCs

    Migrants do help the economy of the countries by cheap labor. "More immigration is a good thing for the economy, plugging the gaps caused by skill shortages and offsetting some of the burden of an ageing population" states the article. It is not only the skills, numbers of people at economically active age group that are lacking within most of the MEDCs. It is impossible for those countries to increase the population in a flash of a second. Therefore, migrants are needed to fill in the gap.

    • Word count: 2717
  8. The coastline of the resort of Sitges is being effectively managed

    One of the options of coastal erosion is to do nothing so therefore I will see if they are using this method or using alternative methods like installing protection. > Evidence for longshore drift/wave direction? A concern would be if there was a strong longshore drift as it would carry the sediment in that direction. > What types of waves are operating there? (constructive/destructive) There are five main coastal management systems that can be used affectively if the coast needs defending2 Do nothing - this means that no coastal defence activities are carried out except for safety measures.

    • Word count: 2731
  9. geography IB prep

    What is sustainable agriculture? � management over technology � biological relationships and natural processes over chemically intense methods �utilize local knowledge � giving land to "land-less" people � more self-reliance in farming communities � need for sustaibale agri-systems is greatest in marginal, fragile environments where western methods are no longer functional b.) Why is it proving so difficult to put into practice on a significant scale? � short term economics grans are not as common � more sustainable to diseases/pests � difficult for marginalized (= poor)

    • Word count: 2563
  10. Geography Course Work

    Another point looked at, will be how the wind speed affects the percentage cover of vegetation, it is very similar to the first investigation, as the pattern will most certainly be similar. Hypothesis: H 1 - I will be looking at the percentage cover of vegetation changes with distance from the sea. As we go further away from the High tide mark (HTM) the percentage of the vegetation cover will increase. Using a transect line and quadrats we will be able see this, due to the fact that the front is more susceptible to trampling by humans, making it harder for the plants to grow in great quantities in those areas.

    • Word count: 2546
  11. Development vs. Conservation - A Debate

    Water is a fundamental resource for all life, and is second only to the air we breathe.3 Sometimes it is easy to overlook the importance of water, seeing that it is so easily accessible to us. However, we must realize that water is a finite natural resource; there is only so much supply of water on Earth. About 97 % of Earth's water is in the oceans in the form of salt water, leaving around 3% of the remaining water as non-salty water (as seen in Figure 1)4.

    • Word count: 2896
  12. China: Overpopulation

    Desert blankets became more than a quarter of China's territory. The environmental damage is visible across northern and northwestern China, the country's driest regions.4 This essay will use desertification as an example of an over population indicator, and explain how areas with low densities can be considered "over populated" compared to areas with high densities, and thus be unsustainable. As Shown previously in Figure 15, it can be deduced that the population is very densely packed into the Southern and Eastern regions of China, and that the Northern and Western regions are very much the opposite.

    • Word count: 2443
  13. 'Major innovations in agriculture have always proved to be controversial(TM) With reference to recent changes in agriculture, evaluate the validity of this statement.

    Modern methods. * Crop rotation are used on smaller farms. But today many crops are grown on a large scale in a system of monoculture, this means the same nutrients are consistently taken from the soil, and replaced by heavy doses of chemical fertilizer. Monoculture encourages pests, therefore requires higher doses of pesticide. * Supermarkets place tight restriction on tier farmers in terms of quality and price. This encourages high chemical use and concentration on a limited range of crops.

    • Word count: 2191
  14. Coasts and their management

    The in inputs and outputs used to describe fluvial landforms (Flusslandschaften) could also be applied to the shoreline environment. The processes acting on coasts are mostly marine (meerartig) or atmospheric, (zur Luft geh�rend) although other important processes include the work of chemical and biological factors. Marine Processes Marine Processes are the action of waves, tides (Gezeiten) and currents (Str�mungen) - these supply most of the energy that shapes landforms in the coastal zone. The original sources of energy that drive marine processes are solar radiation (Sonnenstrahlung) and the gravitational pull of the sun and moon.

    • Word count: 2833
  15. Develpment Case Study

    An example of a MEDC is the United States, whereas the Philippines is a LEDC. These two nations have numerous differences in the development of their nation, such as, their access to basic need, distribution of wealth, and environmental qualities. The United States is border by two bodies of water the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Pacific Ocean. To the North the US is bordered by Canada and Mexico to the south. Ever since World War I the US has been classified as a superpower due to it military and economic superiority.

    • Word count: 2339
  16. Geography HCMC Fieldwork Report

    Pham Ngu Lao is one of the more dangerous area in the Ho Chi Minh City at night. In Pham Ngu Lao, informal industries which may be illegal and dangerous. are thriving business. For example, the selling the drugs, s****l harassment of the women, prostitution, assaults and fighting. Even though Pham Ngu Lao is not comfortable or a completely safe place to stay, its attractive price make tourist stay there. As a result, middle to high class tourists prefer to stay near Dong Khoi Street. Because the hotels that are located in Dong Khoi Street are more convenient, safe and provide range of quality services.

    • Word count: 2515
  17. HIV AIDS -Impacts and Mitigation

    80% Aids infection rate 21.5% 0.9% 0.2% Contraceptive Prevalence Rate 56% 47% 75% 1] Impact on Economic Growth South Africa South Africa has a HIV/AIDS prevalence rate of 21.5%, one of the highest in the world. As compared with a non-HIV/AIDS scenario, the average GDP growth rate has fallen by 0.5% for the next 15 years, while GDP per capita will be 10% lower in 2010. The AIDS pandemic increases mortality & morbidity; the high mortality impacts the labour causing a loss of skills in key sectors of the labour market.

    • Word count: 2575
  18. There are a variety of causes and constraints affecting peoples decisions to migrate permanently

    A third group of factors called barriers or intervening obstacles also play a role in migration. These include levels of literacy, bureaucracy, immigration laws, religion, family ties, lack of capital and travel costs. 3. The Selective Nature of Migration Selection can be the result of policies of the countries or regions involved in migration or it can be self-selection by the immigrants themselves. Both internal and external migrations are often selective. Selection can be linked to both opportunities and constraints that vary according to people's age, s*x, level of wealth, skills and country of origin: � Immigration Quotas - Countries like New Zealand are seeking immigrants with specific skills and a (points system" is used to select would-be immigrants.

    • Word count: 2505
  19. The contrast of 2 cities of one million inhabitants: Oakland and Vienna

    I think that everybody knows that Vienna is famous for it's ancient and fascinating architecture. Well I can tell you that even after the destruction of some historic areas, the Viennese still managed to keep some monuments. I would conclude that this is the result of hard work and good organization. During the 1980's and the 1990's the city's population increased with the ending of communist regimes. People immigrated to Vienna and the population reached more than 1'600'000. So this is how Vienna grew: By renovating and building new things smartly and well organized.

    • Word count: 2194
  20. The influence of a park in a CBD

    Although towe blocks cast more shadow, normal building material tend to be non-reflective and so absorb heat durind the day-time. Dark-coloured roofs, all have a high thermal capacity which means that they are capable of storing heat during the day and releasing is slowly during the night. Further heat is obtained from car fumes, factories, power stations, cetral heating, and people themselves. The term urban heat island acknowledges that, under calm conditions, temperatures are warmest in the more built-up city centre and decrease towards the suburbs and open countryside.2 The "Parque da Luz" is located in the center of S�o Paulo's city3.

    • Word count: 2002
  21. Global Dimming

    Post 9/11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Centers in New York created the ideal opportunity to find out whether contour trails from aircrafts have an affect on the national temperature of America. Dr. David Travis of Wisconsin University took full use of this opportunity. Contrails cover over seventy-five percent of the skies over western America. After the 9/11 attack the entire American commercial fleet was grounded. Aviation transport came to a complete stand still. This was the optimum opportunity to discover whether contour lines from aircraft actually have an affect on the national temperature range.

    • Word count: 2299
  22. global warming

    trap energy from the sun. Without these gases, heat would escape back into space and Earth's average temperature would be about 60�F colder. Because of how they warm our world, these gases are referred to as greenhouse gases. The Earth's atmosphere is all around us. It is the air that we breathe. Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere behave much like the glass panes in a greenhouse. Sunlight enters the Earth's atmosphere, passing through the blanket of greenhouse gases. As it reaches the Earth's surface, land, water, and biosphere absorb the sunlight's energy.

    • Word count: 2157
  23. Sao Paolo

    3. Density DENSITY Sao Paolo Similar to Population per Square Mile 21700 Singapore, Population per Square Kilometer 8400 Rio de Janeiro Sao Paulo's 18 million people live in a compact city. At an estimated 21,000 people per square mile, it is more than double the density of Paris, and nearly three times that of Los Angeles. 4. Birth/death rates The consistent reduction of the infant mortality rate (Figure 4), is in a reducing way, is an indication of the demographic transition in the city of Sao Paulo.

    • Word count: 2521
  24. Continued spending on hard engineering coastal defences cannot be justified in geomorphological, economic or environmental terms.

    This can be seen in the Estoril Coast in Portugal, which was being eroded by the sea. As this spot was attracting a lot of tourists it would have been a disadvantage for the businesses to lose the area to the sea, thus a lot of money was invested into engineering protection for that area around 3.2million Euros. There are a lot of solutions and they can be all classified under two headings Hard and Soft engineering. Soft Engineering is quite a recent event, where the engineers work with the environment.

    • Word count: 2078
  25. What are the effects of global warming and initiatives taken by Wales and Iceland to reduce these effects?

    warming in both Iceland and Wales, and then comparing how efficient Iceland and Wales are at tackling the problem and fortifying themselves from the problem. This investigation will be using statistics and primary resources to come up with a balanced argument, by making impartial judgements and using the information to draw a conclusion for possible solutions that Wales can follow to reduce our countries carbon footprint. In order to effectively compare both countries respectively, we will compare both micro-generation initiatives, governmental initiatives, and review the level of CO2 present in both countries.

    • Word count: 2838

IB Geography encourages its students to build an international and global awareness throughout the course and to acquire an understanding of alternative ideas and approaches. IB Geography will cover both human and physical geography and you'll be looking at key contemporary issues in the subject such as sustainability and climate change at a variety of locations. The subject is organised into core and option modules and the core is based around the concept of the UN's Millennium Development Goals; this means you'll cover Population in Transition, Disparities in Wealth and Development, Patterns in Environmental Quality and Sustainability, and Patterns of Resource Consumption. There are 7 optional topics which include Hazards and Disasters, Oceans and their Coastal Margins and Extreme Environments.

At the Higher level there is an extension which covers another 7 compulsory topics. There is a fieldwork element which will be at the local scale and must be related to one of the topics you cover. The report from this forms part of the internal assessment. The external assessment is completed by a series ofexaminations and you'll need to build your exam technique and written style.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?

    "In conclusion, both countries try to offer the best quality of education for all children, but they differ significantly in teaching quality and facilities. For students who wishing to study abroad, England could be better choice. However, the education systems in each country also have a good points and bad points, so the exchange education between two countries would be considerably."

  • To what extent are deserts a product of present day processes?

    "In conclusion, many of the landscapes seen in the desert today are a product of present day processes shaping the land over a long period of time. However, the sheer scale of some of these indicates that the present day processes worked in combination with things ling tectonic uplift, and some landforms were not created by present day processes at all."


    "In conclusion, arranged marriage is very complicated issue all over the world, the term "arranged marriage" need to understand exactly and the couples must have a right to choose their spouses. On the other hand, the law system would be considered building tightly, making the fair and avoiding forced marriage in social life."

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