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International Baccalaureate: Geography

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  1. Geography case study. In the photo with the slum in the foreground and the CBD in the background, we can see the two faces of Mumbai city.

    In the slums we can see the laundry business. The people that are working there have a more stable home made out of cement whereas the homes next to it are made of whatever they can find. This photo works on levels, the highest building is the richest one then the laundry buildings are on the next level and then the make shift slums. In the CBD we can see that the housing and businesses are more organized. 3) The major difference between the photos is that the photos show 3 ways of life.

    • Word count: 694
  2. Crude oil essay. In this paper I shall talk about crude oil being a valuable resource that will soon run out.

    There are 3 main examples of fossil fuels, Coal, natural gas and crude oil. All though they are all made in a similar manner, they all vary slightly. Coal is formed by a majority of dead land-based plant life such as trees; the dead plant life then goes through the same high pressure and temperature, as do the crude oil and natural gases. The cellulose in from the dead plant-life changes into Humic acids, which is a product of incomplete decomposition of plant life. It then turns into bitumens, a vicious black liquid that is a mixture of organic materials that is primarily composed of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; it then becomes elementary carbon.

    • Word count: 2220
  3. Geography Survey - Is Shuto Orizari a shanty town?

    B The land is neither owned nor rented, it is iccupied 'illegally'? C Residents live a long way from work? D There is high density of housing E Most of the inhabitants are low income? F The land occupiedis not suitable foe settlement? G There is a lack of services? B Metthods of investigation A survey of residents will be conducted to answer some of the above questions.This survey will be in the form of a questionnare, it will help answerB,C and E .Assesing the percentage of households built form wooden material and carboards will be done through observation.Observation and land scaping will be used to test questions.

    • Word count: 1109
  4. Free essay

    Developing countries experience cultural changes due to economics growth. There will be an upside and negative effects as well

    Changes in Distribution of Income: Some people will therefore find they can afford more or less and therefore their standard of living is likely to change. Farmers and fisherman may find they are making less money in new employment or may find it hard to gain employment altogether. Others may find they are earning a higher income and better standard of living by starting their own business (including becoming a franchisee) or by gaining new scarce skills which allow them to improve their standard of living.

    • Word count: 642
  5. Main Topic: Make people aware of the importance of water in our lives

    From drinking it to praising it, how we use water can tell a lot about our culture and religion. Our body as well as our soul needs water to keep living. Water is life; every wonder is reflected by water. We entered the world in a burst of liquid and when we die we are washed and buried in a moist floor. Water is a representation of life and without water the wonders of the world could not be reflected. All around us we can see how water influences our world. Creek banks, ponds, waterfalls, droplets in our garden; water is everywhere.

    • Word count: 548
  6. Chad is a country with a long history of civil war, continued political instability, a weak judicial system, widespread corruption.

    In1970s took place first discoveries of petroleum in Chad. In 1986 the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) joined in efforts by other donors, including France, the EEC, and the United States, to stabilize Chad's financial and budget difficulties. During the late 1990s, Chad collaborated with the World Bank and the IMF to implement structural adjustment programs aimed at liberalizing the economy and improving government management. Between 2000 and 2003, an American-led consortium invested $3.7 billion into the project, approximately $2 billion of which was invested in Chad.

    • Word count: 942
  7. Desertification of Sahara and Gobi desert

    It is estimated that warm deserts form about one fifth of the land surface of the world." (Thefreedictionary.com, 2010) There are many deserts worldwide from South America trough Africa to Asia, deserts differ from region to region some are sandy and very hot and some are rocky or covered by ice and snow. Desert is characterized by very dry land and big temperature differences between the day and night. Desertification is due to the land degradation in the semi- arid and arid areas caused by human beings and climatic changes.

    • Word count: 3142
  8. Climate changes in Canada. What consequences derive from the climate change in Canada and what actions are taken part as a result?

    However, over the past two decades, the climate temperature has been increasing at an uncontrollable speed. This has become a matter of concern and urgently demands global attention including Canada. Climate change is measured by several different factors: changes in temperature, wind, snow cover, and precipitation. If there is a long-term shift in them, then it is most likely to be a change in climate. There are a couple different theories regarding the cause of the climate change. The most commonly known theory states that warmer temperatures are a result of urbanization and burning fossil fuels, leading to the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

    • Word count: 4411
  9. Analysis of Plastic Recycling in Uganda.

    Driessen and Mr. Somani will help me answer the few questions I have about their company. Table of Contents Introduction: 3 Advantages of recycling 6 Disadvantages of recycling 8 Data collected 9 Factors Affecting Uganda's development in recycling 10 Solutions 13 Bibliography; 13 Introduction: Recycling is one of this century's highlights as resources on our planet are perishing and populations growing, we begin to realize that resources on planet today won't sustain the human race for long. One of the solutions to some of the resources being depilated is to collect and separate materials from waste then reuse like aluminum cans and glass bottles which are recast into new cans and bottles.

    • Word count: 2843
  10. Major inventions that have led to global interconnectedness.

    PCR has enabled breakthrough research in mapping the human genome to potentially alter and stop deadly disease, genetic modification of plants to create more viable crops in developing countries, as well as a bevy of other research related to stopping hereditary disorders. PCR utilizes the common DNA of all living organisms to give researchers the awesome power of understanding and altering genetic structures, to manipulate DNA to stop pernicious diseases and create unconventional solutions to daunting conventional challenges. In this sense PCR globalizes every individual around the core of humanity.

    • Word count: 989
  11. Using the 2000 population census, discuss Ghanas population structure bringing out the demographic and socio-economic implication.

    Specifically, during the 2000 Population and Housing Census, it was identified that Ghana has about 40% of its population being children under 15years and 3% above 65years meaning that majority of the population lies with 15 and 65 years. Since there are more adults in the population this would tend to raise the crude birth rate by producing a larger number of children relative to the total population. The population growth rate of Ghana (3.1%) is also higher than that of the world (1.6%).

    • Word count: 715
  12. Population changes in France. The effects of rising life expectancy and immigration.

    By using the results of these studies, we will try to bring out solutions to some problems that could take place in future French society. As technology and medical research is developing at an incredible speed, human healthcare is considerably ameliorating year after year, and therefore, nowadays, people are living much longer, and little by little, life expectancy is climbing up as a result of all the discoveries that are being made by doctors, scientists... If we take a look at the average retiring age expected by the students, we come up with 67 years old.

    • Word count: 1590
  13. Is China poised to become the world's number 1 superpower?

    In terms of the hard facts, China has a booming economy; illustrated by a growth rate of 9% per year, as well as a hoard of equivalent $2.7 trillion in foreign currency. China currently ranks as the second largest economy in the world behind the USA, a status which it has risen to only within the last 30 years. China is the USA's largest source of foreign imports, accounting for $233.6 billion in trade surplus in 2008. Such clear examples of China's economic prowess is what persuades many people to believe China will emerge above the USA as a superpower - a view shared by a colossal 53% of Chinese residents, and 46% of Americans.

    • Word count: 1380
  14. Describe and explain why many LEDCs struggle to increase their Balance of Trade.

    So why are LEDCs not able or struggle to increase their balance of trade. The gap between LEDCs and MEDCs exists due to the production of primary goods, such as food, in LEDCs that sell their products to MEDCs at low prices, whereas MEDCs supply secondary and sometimes even tertiary products that can be sold at a much higher price. Although the price of the primary goods increased they did not increased as much as the secondary goods which mean LEDCs are not able to gain enough money to gain a trade surplus.

    • Word count: 583
  15. Evaluate the consequences of global climate change. The change in temperature seems to raise many new problems and obstacles, some more minor alternatively more important than others.

    They are also issues occurring due to ice melting at the Antarctica. Figures show that between 1996 and 2006 the net loss of ice rose by 75% which can influence the rise in sea levels drastically, the albedo effect which release another positive feedback, and the extinction of animals, such as polar bears. This shows how one consequence can trigger many new ones that cannot be prevented anymore. Consequently, shows the importance of the consequence ice melting which is also pointed out by the assumption that it is a tipping point of global warming.

    • Word count: 554
  16. Extreme Environment Report - Cumbria. The aim is to investigate a cold and high attitude environment in high mountains in non tropical latitudes.

    The oldest rocks belong to the Ordovitian age (495-443 Ma). They are known as Skiddaw Group and they are represented by 1000 m of grey wackes. This group forms a triangular mountainous zone whose maximum high is 931 meters on Skiddaw itself. They are easy to break in small pieces. Since the formation of this group, the part of Earth's crust known as Lake District passed from the south part of the equator to the current position. The Borrowdale Volcanic Group is made of lavas and pyroclasts erupted during a phase of cataclysmic volcano, 450 million years ago.

    • Word count: 2201
  17. Explain trends and patterns in birth rates, nativity increase and mortality, infant mortality rates, fertility rates and life expectations in the different regions of the world.

    Highest growth rate are found in Africa, while lowest growth rate are found in Europe and North America. Currently, developing countries have higher birth rates than developed countries; this is one of the reasons why the world population is located mainly in LEDCs. Developing countries have higher birth rates because of: * A greater population base; * Many parents will decide tu have many children because of the infant mortality rate; * Workers are needed in the farms and children represent a source; * Cultural and religious factors; On the other hand, developed countries have lower birth rates because of:

    • Word count: 1089
  18. AIDS in Africa. Lack of education contributes to HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa

    For the women, the only possible way to do this is by going into prostitution, which further increases their chance of contracting HIV. If the woman ends up being pregnant and she is infected with HIV/AIDS, the child will most likely contract it too, unless the mother has the money to pay for the medication to prevent it, which isn't very likely in the poor parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. In South Africa, 9 out of 10 children who have HIV/AIDS were infected by their mother through breastfeeding, pregnancy or while in labor.

    • Word count: 1180
  19. Is Indonesia a Developed or Developing Country?

    and has lower values for the various development indicators (as shown in the table below) and is striving to advance socially and economically. Country-wise Development Indicators Development Indicator Indonesia USA UK India Norway GDP per capita 4,300 46,400 35,400 3,100 59,300 Total population 245,613,043 307,212,123 61,113,205 1,156,897,766 4,660,539 Population below poverty line 13.33% (2006) 12% (2004) 14% (2006) 25% (2007) Not Available Life expectance at birth 71.3 78 79 66 80 Adult literacy rate 90 99 99 61 100 Population living below $1 29.4% Not Available Not Available 41.6% Not Available HDI 0.600 0.902 0.849 0.519 0.938 Human Development Index is the mean of Life Expectancy at birth, the average years of schooling and the expected years of schooling.

    • Word count: 747
  20. Indonesia - population trends analysis. We see that rural population of Indonesia declined by about 9 million and the urban population increased by 31 million.

    The majority is concentrated on Java, Bali and Madura (60%). The majority of Indonesians are of Malay descent. The major ethnic groups are: Javanese (45%), Sundanese (14%), Madurese (7.5%). Coastal Malays (7.5%) and others - Chinese, Indians (26%).1 The currency of Indonesia is the Indonesian Rupiah (IDR) [Rp.] Its current exchange rate with the US$ is about $1 = Rp. 8,538 Over the past 10 years, Indonesia has changed much. Its population increased by approx. 28 million people. But the major change is in the type of population change. From the graph, we see that rural population of Indonesia declined by about 9 million and the urban population increased by 31 million.

    • Word count: 1051
  21. The motorized urban sprawl brings about higher level greenhouse effect through discharges of greenhouse gases. It is obvious that compact urban development, the growth of new cities and sustained movement continue to put heavy demands on urban transport s

    Therefore, urban expansion leads to more fuel utilize in transportation and capacious homes on the metropolitan fringe. Furthermore, the mass production of vehicle led to mass suburbanization and to an urban sprawl in the 20th century (Martin, g.2007.para.5). This human activity is the main root cause of greenhouse-gas emissions. The international business organisations have attempted to combat greenhouse effect with technical innovation. They begin focus on the long period energy solutions which include cleaner fuels and alternative energy sources (Gonzalez, G.A .2005.para14). However, there are two shortcomings in the solutions to greenhouse effect. Firstly, nuclear energy is a kind of cleaner fuels advocated by the business group.

    • Word count: 719
  22. The Millenium Devolpment Goals and their current progress

    1: The first MDG is considered a one of the main priorities for the UN and so far the objective seems feasible as some countries have already met their goals and most are on a dramatic decrease for poverty and hunger. There is still though some countries who are far from completion, but, on of the main worries for the UN is that they fear that slower economic growth and rising food prices could reverse recent progress in the next few years. Results can be seen in Fig. 1 2: This MDG talks of the proposed increase of global education.

    • Word count: 1212

    This warming could cause some serious problems for Canada. Increased temperatures, the panel says, will lead to sea-level rises and a likely increase in flooding. And that's how global warming is affecting the average temperature increase in Canadian arctic. The ice of Canadian arctic is melting, believed to have been caused by global warming. A researcher at the Colorado Center said that Canadian Arctic ice was melting at a far quicker rate than anticipated. The melting has caused coastal ice in parts of Canada to become quite brittle.

    • Word count: 1312
  24. Foreign Talent-Dilemma in Singapore. as we shall explain, illustrate and seek to convince in this report, foreign talent help to make Singapore more competitive, and create more opportunities than we can generate on our own. This will be crucial in enabl

    This will be crucial in enabling Singaporeans to find fulfilment and achieve "the good life". Singaporeans have expressed concerns. However, after much discussion and deliberation, our committee feels strongly that there is no contradiction between making Singapore our best home and a talent capital. These two goals are mutually self-reinforcing and synergistic. Why Do We Need Foreign Talent? 5. Talent is crucial to Singapore's survival and success. To maintain our long-term competitiveness, Singapore must transit into a Knowledge-Based Economy (KBE).

    • Word count: 10052
  25. Global Warming, the problem, the potential impacts and alternatives to fossil fuels.

    With temperatures around the world rising because of global warming the average sea temperatures rise of increasing infrared radiation melting the ice in Antarctic and Polar regions. Every year parts of Greenland's ice shelf is melting, the rising water carries out to sea and every year the melting of this ice shelf increases which releases more water into the sea. In Antarctica the surface ice has enough water to rise sea levels over 60 metres. Every year the temperature of the ice in is increasing which indicates rapid increase in sea levels. Category 2 - Showing your understanding (10 points)

    • Word count: 2182

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