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International Baccalaureate: Geography
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Examine the relative importance of the different financial flows that connect global core areas with peripheral areas
A not considerable proportion of world trade is intra-firm, taking place within TNC´s. The organisation of the car giants is a good example for intra-firm trade, with engines, gearboxes and other key components produced in one country and exported for assembly elsewhere. Global FDI inflows reached a historical high of $1979 billion in 2007, although the amount declined by 14% in 2008 due to the global financial crisis. The global financial crisis changed the geography of financial investment, with an increasing importance of developing countries profiting from FDI. The flow of FDI to less developed countries including least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing states increased by 29%, 54% and 32% respectively.
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Economic restructuring of Hong Kong To begin with economic restructuring, began in 1970s, the production costs and land prices were increasing quickly and were very expensive and because of this, industrialists began to move their factories to China for lower production costs and higher profits. However, this move decreased the number of manufacturing job opportunities and increased the unemployment rate and gradually led to the economic transformation in 1980s, as there were few factories left in Hong Kong, Hong Kong started to transform from an industrial-based economy to a service and knowledge-based economy.
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Referring to the one or more examples discuss whether urbanization in LEDCs has more positive than negative consequences
Well developed cities provide variety of services which are not presented in remote villages. Children have a possibility for education because of presence of schools. Thanks to their education they gain knowledge that gives them an opportunity for good job. Moreover, cities give opportunities of better salaries and it makes people maintain good conditions of life for their families. What is more, cities offer better health care system for people. It means that the death rate can decrease and the pyramid of population can change into positive.
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The earth provides us with enough resources to survive peacefully while managing a thriving economy in the long run but, the human greed for possession and fulfilling endless desires has led to this upset in the balance between the environment and economic growth. 1. People need to change their ways and voluntarily change their mindset in order to utilize our natural resources judicially as simply establishing new laws and guidelines wont last long if the environment has to be saved.
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Somalian Famine. There is no such thing as an apolitical food problem, Amartya Sen, Nobel Prize winning Economist. Discuss this statement.
Last year, the Horn of Africa, of which Somalia is part, was reported to have experienced the most severe drought in six decades. Normally, Somalia experiences two different monsoon seasons, one in spring/ summer, and the other (usually heavier) one in autumn ? this pattern had been quite predictable up until 2011, when the latter monsoon season did not occur in Southern Somalia, an area which is agriculturally vital to the country. This is shown in the following chart: This extreme environmental condition meant that there was a major lack of water supply to farms and crop-growing areas, which led to a rapid decline in harvest and yield for the year.
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The protocol was signed at the 11 December 1997, however it became valid at the 16 February 2005. Protocol would not take effect until 90 days after it was ratified by at least 55 countries involved in the UNFCCC ( United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). Another condition was that ratifying countries had to represent at least 55 percent of the world?s total carbon dioxide emissions for 1990. Unfortunately two biggest world producers of the carbon dioxide: the USA and China did not join the Kyoto Protocol.
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Investors are encouraging Canada to pour more institutional funds into timberlands while trading globally to maximize benefits. Timber has traditionally been a good barrier against inflation and has provided stable investment returns for shareholders. Analysis In my opinion this major Canadian forestry ?revival? has come as a great advantage to Canada?s economy, however it was bound to happen at some point in the near future. The article states that Canada?s forestry industry has always been an ?underdog? to its other primary industries, providing employment to less than 1.9% of Canada?s workforce. However this figure encompasses tens of thousands of jobs.
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They may increase the crime rate as theft or terrorism, to bring imbalance to a nation?s economy or merely disrupt the society. . Many are struggling to combat this issue due to the large amount of illegal immigrants and the lack of international cooperation. This also results in the harm of these immigrants as most of them are subject to slavery, prostitution and other such crimes. Many Policies have led to the involvement of the UN like The International Organization of Migration (IOM)
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(observer), Mercosur (associate), MIGA, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, Petrocaribe, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO 7. Size of armed forces: males age 16-49: 5,614,743 & females age 16-49: 6,074,834 CULTURAL GEOGRAPHY 8. Official language: Spanish (official), numerous indigenous dialects. Ethnic composition: Spanish, Italian, Portuguese, Arab, German, African, indigenous people 9. Population: 28,047,938 , population growth rate: 1.468% , and population distribution: 85.3 people per mile square 10. Major cities: CARACAS (capital)
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Although aquaculture has been seen as a major alternative source of fresh fish supply, the production has not grown fast enough to meet increased demand. The Kingdom will therefore be dependent on imported products to meet its fish demand. Fisheries Policies and Plans: The main objective of Saudis fishery is to promote the sustainable products of local fish stock in order to insure fresh fish supply. One of its objective is to satisfy national demand by minimising the difference between the local fishery production and total fish consumption.
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The local people that need this aid are able to see the progress themselves as they are involved with such projects. An example of aid being effective is seen in Freetown, Sierra Leone. The aid provided by World Bank has been used to support Reducing Administrative Barriers to Investment (RABI) schemes. This scheme cuts down the ?red tape? and supports the creation of ?one-stop shops? which makes it less difficult and expensive to start a business. Between 2005 and 2007, 1800 new companies were set up in Sierra Leone.
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The conversion also brings a rise of land and food prices, which has two main outcomes: food displacement of small farmers and indigenous communities and controversial land claims which is also a result of the right to claim more cleared land. Those two main outcomes lead to rural violence and assassinations. 2. Causes and consequences of deforestation: Causes: There are several causes of deforestation: Cattle ranching, small-scale, subsistence agriculture, fire, mining, urbanization, road construction and dams. Cattle ranching is the most known cause.
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With reference to named examples, discuss the extent to which migration brings benefits to both the point of origin and the host destination.
Over 57% of all illegal immigrants in the US are Mexican. This is a major cause of concern for the US as this results in exploitation of this labour and the presence of an informal economy which may assist in harmful activities such as terrorism and drug cartels. According to Lee?s migration model, there are a large number of factors i.e. push, pull and neutral factors that affect movement of people from one location to another. Push factors are factors that encourage to people to leave the origin. In the case of Mexico, a large number of people were inclined to leave Mexico , due to poor work conditions and low paid jobs with a weekly wage of $60 ( a sixth of that of the US?s).
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Immigration and local migration: There is one major problem here in Bulgaria, called local migration and it concerns the almost constant flow of people from all over the country?s provinces to the big city, especially to the capital ? Sofia. Yet again, globalization has let to very low taxes and has eliminated the trade borders. Bulgarian agriculture is, or should I say ?was?, famous for its wide variety of high quality fruits, vegetables and other natural products. But, quality comes with the price.
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In urban areas, the rate of declining is much greater than the rural areas, however, urban areas still have a higher percentage of access to water sources than the rural areas. Meanwhile, urban areas have twice the percentage of improved sanitation facilities compared to rural areas and there?s a pattern showing an increasing trend of improved sanitation for urban areas only. The improvement in technology has helped to improve the water sanitation system in Tanzania, but I don?t really understand why the access to water source in urban areas would decline over time.
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It is vital for consumers in these developed nations to have access to any type of produce at any time of the year. Now more than ever, there is mounting pressure on the job of many developing nations to support the growing demand of seasonal food products and many have to adapt to environmental limitations to ensure that their produce meets the growing global demand of off seasonal produce. Many developing nations, of which act as the basis for crop production for the food superhighway, have had to find more and more sustainable farming methods over the past several years to just keep up with this global demand in farm produce.
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Of the nation's 267 major fish stocks, roughly 20% are either already overfished, experiencing overfishing, or approaching an overfished condition. This rate of overfishing has not primarily been due to the growing numbers of fishermen and fishing boats across the world. One of the primary causes of overfishing is simple; the rate of fishing at its current rate now has resulted in a downward spiral of fishing efficiency. In the past several decades, fishing was not a sustainable global project because fishermen were unable to access every location and this stemmed primarily from low tech approaches to fishing, due to a large number of people fishing for subsistence purposes.
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Although Europe, western E, and the US were the fist major areas to experience IDs, by the end of the 19th C, other countries?notably Russia, Japan, and Sweden, among others?joined in. For the captains of industry produced gods in order to sell, trade or barter them, and their commercial activities circled the globe. The salve trade provided labor for the cotton plantations of the US, which in turn fueled the cotton textile industry & the ID in England, illustrates this global trading network.
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Of all the environmental challenges we face, soil degradation is the most serious. Discuss this statement.
There are many explanations as to why soil degradation exists. Among the causes is the reduction of the natural vegetative cover which renders the topsoil more susceptible to erosion, as well as when huge areas of forest are cleared for logging, fuel wood, farming or other human uses. Unsustainable land-use practices such as excessive irrigation, inappropriate use of pesticides, and overgrazing by livestock are all huge factors which contribute to major soil degradation in an area. Physical degradation can be a result of groundwater over-abstraction which is the process of taking water from a ground source, either temporarily or permanently.
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accessed to safe water source supply rose from 83 per cent in 1991 to 91 per cent in 2008, this indicated that about 15 million people have benefited during this period (Watson, 2008). In South Africa water availability varies dramatically both in time and space. The rainfall only has as low as 100mm in arid plateau area, while the rainfall in southeast area gets 1,000mm in average per year. This rainwater often causes floods and less of this water is used by people (Watson, 2008).
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Sometimes, granular disintegration can occur. This is when individual grains of the rock fall off because different minerals within the rock expand and contract at different rates. This is because darker crystals within the rock absorb more heat and would tend to expand more than light materials. Another form of Mechanical weathering is frost shattering. Frost shattering occurs in areas where there is moisture and where the temperatures fluctuate above and below freezing. This process occurs when water from rainfall enters the joints and crevices in desert rocks.
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Hydraulic action) sheer force of water hitting the banks of the river. TRANSPORTATION: Traction: Large rocks and boulders are rolled along the bed of the river. Saltation : smaller stones are bounced along the bed of a river in a leap-frogging motion Suspension: fine material, light enough in weight to be carried by the river. It is the material that discolors the water. Solution) dissolved material is transported by the river. Erosion occurs when river is in flood. It can then carry huge amounts of material in suspension as well as being able to move the largest of boulders lying on its bed.
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could increase by more than 20% by the 2080s. By contrast, in summer, central and southern UK could be much dryer than it is now with up to 18% less rainfall by 2080s. However northern England and Scotland is likely to experience the double whammy (double consequences) of both wetter summers and wetter winters. With hotter weather, the demand for water would increase significantly as would evaporation from reservoirs (tanks to save water). As a result droughts, already a problem in the south during the summers, are likely to become more severe.
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Fieldwork Question: Which are more effective in promoting vehicular traffic flow in Nairobi: roundabouts or unregulated intersections?
A person who works in the city centre coming from outside of Nairobi, therefore, has a very long trip to work, which is mostly spent sitting in their car, wishing they had woken up a little earlier to escape the mess. Nairobi?s poorly designed infrastructure and lack of cooperation between politicians, largely because of corruption, only adds to the chaos. Drawn from the syllabus section: Urban Environments, the field study compares various measures of congestion at two types of intersections, which are common in Nairobi, roundabouts and unregulated intersections, in order to establish their effectiveness.
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