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International Baccalaureate: Geography

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  1. Disease case study

    Central Europe 760 000 Oceania 75 000 East Asia 800 000 South and South-East Asia 4.0million The people suffering from AIDS are unevenly distributed throughout the world, some areas have high percentage of people living with HIV, others have very low percentage of people living with HIV. Although African Americans represent about 13% of the population, they accounted for 48% of new HIV or AIDS diagnoses in 2005. AIDS was the fourth leading cause of death among African Americans aged 25-44 years in the United States in 2004.

    • Word count: 2337
  2. Aids in India

    The social consequences HIV/AIDS in India: Many children become orphan because both their parents have died due to mutual contamination. India has the largest number of AIDS orphans of any country in the world. This number is expected to more than double in five years, and the proportion of orphaned children will remain exceptionally high until 2020 or 2030. Given the long incubation period between infection and the onset of symptoms, the epidemic's impact will linger for decades even if the rate of new infections is brought under control .Children orphaned by AIDS have to face social exclusion and extreme economic uncertainty, illiteracy, malnutrition, illness, exploitation of their labor, and physical and s****l abuse.

    • Word count: 1812
  3. Urbanisation - how cities differ in LEDCs from those in MEDCs.

    Many people moved from rural to urban areas to get jobs in the rapidly expanding industries in many large towns and cities. But soon after the major wave of enthusiasm has ended people began to recognize the huge disadvantages of living in the crowded cities, health issues such as respiratory disease due to air pollution or sewage and clean water issues forced and drove many people back to the outermost parts of the city. Since 1950 urbanisation has slowed in most MEDCs, and now some of the biggest cities are losing population as people move away from the city to rural environments.

    • Word count: 1338
  4. Food aid: case study

    Pasture conditions are excellent and no major outbreaks of crop pests have been reported. Crop conditions in Nigeria and other countries in the sub-region also appear to be favorable; therefore, added pressures on Niger food stocks will be minimal and this indicates that the current situation of food supply in Niger is improving. Niger appears to be on the path to a fourth consecutive good annual harvest. This may be the first time in modern history that Niger has enjoyed four good annual harvests in a row.

    • Word count: 3927
  5. About Iberia Airlines

    Timp de un an a fost finantata de catre guvernul Spaniol, pentru a face transport postal �ntre Barcelona si Madrid. Dupa doisprazece ani de activitate, iberia lanseaza zboruri spre sau din Europa, primul zbor fiind Madrid- Lisabona. Astazi Grupul Iberia zboara �n 206 destinatii �n 46 de tari. �n plus, si �n code share cu alte companii aeriene, ofera zboruri spre 60 de destinatii �n 25 de tari. Cu o flota de peste 200 de aeronave, desfasoara aproximativ 1.000 de zboruri zilnice. �n anul 2002, a avut 28 milioane de pasageri si a transportat peste 210000 de tone de marfa.

    • Word count: 4061
  6. Soil Erosion

    These nutrients are recycled between the top soil and the plant matter growing on the surface. While you move down, on the image on the right, you can see subsoil. The further you go down the less nutrients and minerals there are available in the soil and this process is called 'leeching'. Subsequently, I will explain the two different types of naturally-caused soil erosion. The first one is soil erosion caused by running water. There are two different soil erosions caused by running water. The first one is what's called a 'rain splash' erosion. Imagine raindrops as tiny 'bombs', which are causing mud to shift, like a 'mini explosion'.

    • Word count: 1220
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  8. Essay Plans - "The Future of Asia" and "Japan"

    For this a proposed alternative is the setting up of an Asian Monetary Fund to promote financial integration in Asia. Its sole purpose would be crisis lending and recovery assistance. * India is on the way become the next new economic power, following China, by capitalizing on its low labor costs and technological advancement. * The move by ASEAN leaders to draft an East Asian Free Trade agreement is a commendable one. * The formation of the East Asian summit has helped resolve many economic issues and led to advancement to countries like Vietnam that are pushing forward to make a mark globally.

    • Word count: 907
  9. Aid to foreign countries

    Emergency Aid is a whole different thing than the aid that is given on normal basses. Emergency Aid is a rapid assistance given to people that are in immediate distress it is given to relief these people from suffering. It is only for a short period of time to help them back up.

    • Word count: 479
  10. Outline the nature of the changes to the Iban culture that have resulted from globalization: The Iban tribe initially carried the name Sea Dayaks. They have settled around the rivers of Borneo,

    Globalization has had a great impact on the Iban. This is not only by stopping a certain custom like headhunting, but also by affecting the whole culture. The contact with the outside world has become larger over time. This is not only due to tourism, and other people from the outside world, but also due to the Iban themselves. A good example of this own initiative is the berjelai as mentioned above. Globalization has caused for expansion of cities, towns, and villages, together with the rapid development of industry this has resulted in decrease of available land for the Iban.

    • Word count: 858
  11. Gentrification Case Study

    Johannesburg is notorious for its incredibly high crime rates, serious traffic congestion and inadequate public transport. There is currently a large scale Inner City Revival project under way to try and return many businesses back to the inner city. The city is often regarded as Africa's only "global city". Johannesburg's Ethnicity and Economy: Black Africans account for around 70% of the population followed by whites (16%), colored South Africans (6%) and a small portion of Asians (4%). Around 40% of the population is under the age of 24, while only 6% are above the age of 60.

    • Word count: 1305
  12. Benefits and disadvantages of European expansion

    The single currency also favored trade by suppressing currency exchange taxes and reducing monetary instability. Thus, by standardizing national regulations, the single market makes it easier to do business in the EU and contributes to faster economic growth. Moreover, the Common Agriculture Policy, with its subsidies, helped increase productivity and provide consumers with food at reasonable prices, once again boosting the economies. To add on to these facts, tourism in the European Union has also been promoted, generating jobs hence economic activity.

    • Word count: 874
  13. The aim of this geographical report is to find a correlation between the fertility rates and the status of women through the analysis of the indicators of development in different countries of the world, based on published statistics.

    When looking at their discriminate conditions (malnutrition, poor health, lack of education, overwork, unskilled, mistreatment, powerlessness), it seems that the levels of development and growth of the population are low. This essay intends to demonstrate this correlation, also in terms of development's aspects. The interpretation of data is based on a sort of countries' selection, known as the methods of sampling. Two of them (random and systematic), explained later, were used for this investigation. The sample involved two sets of 25 countries each, with low and high income characteristics.

    • Word count: 2288
  14. Famine + Long-term Hunger Notes What defines famine?

    * By August, thousands dying; six million people at risk. * Only in November, after consistent media coverage was aid being stepped up. * In 2002, 17 years after the famine, another famine faced the country with officials estimating 15 million people were risking starvation. 2 million tonnes of food aid were required * In May 2003, 12 million Ethiopians were in need of food aid. * Only half the food needed for the 2003 famine was pledged * As of 2006, The FAO estimates more than one million people in the Somali Region of Ethiopia are facing severe food shortages.

    • Word count: 704
  15. Enviromental Quality

    and even the switch back to Nuclear power (although this does have its own problems on the global physical environment in terms of pollution of Nuclear waste). Whilst this change is positive and is improving the global physical environment, there are still huge industries not wanting to conform to cleaner technology due to the increased costs. Examples of this are commonly the massive multinational cooperation's who exploit the lack lustre health and safety standards in LEDC's for their own gain at the detriment to the environment, the Union Carbide factory in Bhopal in India was found to have left large quantities or poisonous fatal chemicals open to the air killing hundreds of people.

    • Word count: 687
  16. With reference to the map above; describe and explain its population distribution and density

    On the other hand, there are almost no people living in the majority of land, the desert. The uneven population is mostly caused by the extreme relief. When 95.6% of the land was covered by desert, people will definitely move to the 4% along Niles and Delta, where there are 2.92% of arable land, and a 100 miles long, 155 miles wide river.

    • Word count: 506
  17. To what extend is the water of the Nile Valley being used in a sustainable way?

    Firstly, mostly due to the build of d*m, the Nile water is multifunctional, but mainly benefited Egypt. For example, it generates half of Egypt's power supply through hydro-electric power, controls the annual floods that causes damage along the floodplain, improves navigation by keeping water flow consistent. Also, with the electricity, it helps pump water to higher levels, leaving a 12km wide land arable. Moreover, Egypt also modified its irrigation method; such as by using drip irrigation, water drips on plants through plastic pipes with small holes let less water being wasted by evaporation or drainage.

    • Word count: 614
  18. Migration in MEDCs

    Migrants do help the economy of the countries by cheap labor. "More immigration is a good thing for the economy, plugging the gaps caused by skill shortages and offsetting some of the burden of an ageing population" states the article. It is not only the skills, numbers of people at economically active age group that are lacking within most of the MEDCs. It is impossible for those countries to increase the population in a flash of a second. Therefore, migrants are needed to fill in the gap.

    • Word count: 2717
  19. Farming Systems Analysis

    Even though surplus in meat or milk from cattle is required for world trade-the higher than world market subsidized price distorts the overall market and leads to inaccessibility from developing nations. There are 38 million acres of ranges and pastures in California-however feedlots are concentrate large numbers of cattle to efficiently utilize the large abundance of grains and by-products as feed. This not only speeds of production of cattle, but efficiently & intensively utilizes resources from a small plot of land.

    • Word count: 1160
  20. Some people believe that the earth is being greatly harmed by human activity, whereas others argue that human activity is actually making the earth a better place for us all. What is your opinion?

    These damages to the environment should be paid more attention. I think everyone should be responsible for the earth, because I believe that some human activity is destroying the earth. The essay will describe how the earth is being harmed by human activity. Firstly, waste is a huge problem for the environment. Why is the waste so serious? "Each year in the European Union alone we throw away 1.3 billion tonnes of waste - some 40 million tonnes of it hazardous. This amounts to about 3.5 tonnes of solid waste for every man, woman and child."

    • Word count: 667
  21. Languages and Religion

    As mentioned before, Ainu believe in many Gods, on the contrary in my culture people believe in one God. Then, Ainu believe that soul cycles through 2 worlds, and this worlds are almost the same. In my culture, people believe that after death soul goes to another better world. Ainu believes are animism. In my culture, human is made in the image and likeness of God. Japan hasn't stated such ethnic minority like Ainu. Only in 1991, in a report to the United Nations did Japan publicly recognize the Ainu as an ethnic minority. Government still refused to recognize the Ainu as an indigenous people.

    • Word count: 786
  22. To what extent are deserts a product of present day processes?

    Wind transportation can cause deflationary hollows, another landform created by a present day process. This transportation mainly occurs in the form of saltation, and the wind removes the finer material, leaving a stony hollow behind. Although this is true for most hollows, some hollows - mostly the biggest ones, are not caused by deflation as the scale of them is too large. The final landform formed from Aeolian processes is the sand dune. The variety of sand dunes which are visible in the desert are shaped by wind direction - with velocity and fetch having an effect.

    • Word count: 900
  23. Urban-Birmingham

    During the industrial revolution (from mid 18th century and on), Birmingham grew rapidly into a major industrial centre. During the Victorian era, the population of Birmingham grew rapidly to well over half a million. In recent years, Birmingham has been transformed; the city has been extensively rebuilt and renovated, causing much immigration from the Commonweath of Nations. Introduction to Urbanization in MEDC's Usually more developed countries have around 70% of their population living in urban places. The UK has had its urban percentage rise from 33.8% in 1801 to 78% in 1901. As of today this percentage is around 90%.

    • Word count: 769
  24. Aids Case Study

    The country I chose is Uganda What is AIDS/HIV? AIDS is an acronym for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and is defined as a collection of symptoms and infections resulting from the depletion of the immune system caused by infection with HIV. AIDS/HIV in Uganda: The reason I chose to look at AIDS in Uganda is because it is one of the few African countries where the HIV prevalence rates have actually dropped and it is also seen as a rare example of succes in a place where its nieghbours are facing a severe aids crisis.

    • Word count: 1579
  25. Geography Essay : Can China Feed Itself

    is to be answered. Two major points will be considered in this answer, these being first of all population growth followed by the need of dietary change. The people's republic of China was founded in 1949 and at this point, its population was estimated to be around 540 million. Surprisingly enough, about thirty years later, its population almost doubled, creating a strong "population momentum"3 leading to China's current fast population increase despite low levels of fertility. The total amount of inhabitants in China is expected to increase by an additional 260 millions in the next three decades to reach a total population of about 1.49 billions in 2025.

    • Word count: 1401

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