Does acid rain cause hardness in water?

Does carbon dioxide affect plant growth?

Is there a difference between the convection current of acid rain and distilled water?

Ali Ercingöz

Burcu Erdoğan

Deniz Kıratlıoğlu

Can Atalay

Ege Zorlu

Arman Onart

Subjects and Group Members

Chemistry:                                                                   (Ali Ercingöz, Can Atalay)

Does acid rain cause hardness in water?

Biology:                                                (Burcu Erdoğan, Ali Ercingöz, Ege Zorlu)

 Does carbon dioxide affect plant growth?

Physics:                                              (Can Atalay, Deniz Kıratlıoğlu, Arman Onart)

 Is there a difference between the convection current of acid rain and distilled water?


Global warming is the effect of greenhouse gases on the earth. Greenhouse gases are the emissions that rise into the atmosphere and trap the sun’s energy, keeping the heat from escaping. Because of the global warming, the air temperature near the earth’s surface rose by 0.9ºC during the last 100 years. This causes the sea levels to rise, increase the intensity of extreme weather events and increases the amount of acid rain. As a result of these newly formed conditions, unprecedented natural disasters and damages the natural life such as agricultural yields, species, extinctions and the range of disease vectors arise.

While these are occurring, people are trying to defend their future both socially and politically. To be able to take steps upon stopping the effects of global warming, people need to be aware of this natural danger. We as a science fair group, investigated the effects of global warming under three specific titles.  


Water, carbon dioxide, methane, ozone gases are heading to global warming. This is because of them preventing escaping of radiation out of the atmosphere. Atmospheric carbon dioxide increases the energy input of earth’s atmosphere, due to increase of radiation. The increasing amounts of these gases also increase the amount of substances which dissolve in water and this causes hardness in water because of acidity. Also, if air dries, the minerals precipitate, the water becomes harder. Carbon dioxide, which is dissolved in the ocean water reacts with water carbonic acid. The pH decreases, acidity also acts upon lives of organisms, in the ocean and on land, by the acid rains.


The use of coal, oil, and natural gases increases the amount of carbon dioxide present in the Earth’s atmosphere. A certain amount of carbon dioxide is needed for especially photosynthesis and plant growth. If there is more carbon dioxide than needed, plants start to loose less water and begin to grow under drier conditions. As the amount of plants increase, amount of animals also increase. As a parallel reaction, because of the respiration of animals, the amount of carbon dioxide increases again, and the surrounding becomes even drier. It also makes an increase in temperature. As a conclusion, rise of temperature effects properties of living beings, how the enzymes function, and people face difficulties in biochemical functioning.


The substances which dissolve in water contain ions in the solution. These ions conduct electricity from one point to another. Acid rain contains ions, which are making conduction occur. Because of the conduction, natural disasters may harm organisms much more, while it conducts the electricity into the soil and harms the plant life and the whole life cycle.


Global warming mainly causes the acid rain, increase in temperature and they all effect the life cycle and natural beings, while they affect the structure of plants and all other organisms. These effects can be observed chemically, physically and biologically, and by the experiments which have been done by the group will determine whether or not global warming causes effects.



Question: Is there a difference between the convection current of acid rain and distilled water?


To determine whether there is a difference between the convection current in distilled water and rain water.


It has been predicted that the convection current will be faster for rain water than it is for distilled water because it is more responsive to temperature change. This is because rain water contains impurities other than hydrogen and oxygen atoms which give it its acidic properties. As well as these acidic properties, these impurities in acid rain also lower its specific heat capacity, thus making it lower than normal, distilled water’s. Heat capacity is the minimum amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a certain liquid by one Kelvin.

Pure water is the compound with the highest specific heat capacity and has a specific heat capacity of 4.2 joules per gram (4.2 J g–1 K–1). Therefore, since acid rain is an impure form of water, its specific heat capacity will be lower than that of pure water. Because of this, rain water is more responsive to temperature changes, and it takes less time and energy (in the form of heat) for the temperature of this rain water to be raised. Thus, acid rain has a faster convection current than distilled water at the same temperature. This makes acid rain a better conductor of heat than pure water.

Apparatus and Justification

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  1. Gather the required equipment and add pebbles to the water tank, so that the bottom of the tank is covered completely.
  2. Add 1.5 litres of distilled water to the tank, using a measuring cylinder. Measure and record the water’s temperature.
  3. Add 0.05g of potassium permanganate.
  4. Heat the water and observe the convection current as the temperature increases.
  5. At the same time, using another tank, repeat this procedure, making up 1.5 litres of acid rain (of pH 4) instead of the distilled water.
  6. By using the pH to concentration formula, we were able to work out ...

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