#### Investigating Hydrated Crystals.

Hydrated Crystals Our unknown sample is Unknown A, which is theoretically CuSO4 .5H2O. Table 1: Raw Data Quantitative Observations Mass (g) Uncertainties Mass of crucible 45.74 ± 0.02 Mass of crucible + 3g of hydrated salt 48.72 ± 0.02 Mass of hydrated salt 2.98 ± 0.04 Mass of crucible and contents after heating #1 47.97 ± 0.02 Mass of crucible and contents after heating #2 47.88 ± 0.02 Mass of crucible and contents after heating #3 47.77 ± 0.02 Mass of crucible and contents after heating #4 47.75 ± 0.02 Mass of anhydrous salt 47.75 ± 0.02 Qualitative Observations: When the beaker was covering the evaporating basin on the hot place, it had water vapour lined on its inside. The colour of the salt becomes lighter - from blue crystals and a mixture of lighter blue and white crystals. The texture after the heating appeared to look like ash, suggesting that it was dryer. Questions: (a) Calculate the mass of water in the hydrate. Total mass of water: Weight before heating - Weight after heating #4 48.72 ± 0.02 - 47.75 ± 0.02 = 0.97g Uncertainty of mass of water in hydrated salt: 0.02 + 0.02 = 0.04 Total mass of water = 0.97 ± 0.04 (b) Compare the number of the anhydrous compound to the number of moles of water in the hydrate and use the ratio of these values to predict a formula of the hydrated compound. Mass of anhydrous

• Word count: 923
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Group 4 Projects

#### Group 4 Chemistry - Amylase

Nick Gourlay SCH4UIB Group 4 Project: Activity of Amylase Lab Partner: Neil Desai Date: February 26 2008 Research Question What is the effect of concentration, pH and temperature on the reaction rate of salivary amylase in the breakdown of starch? Hypothesis I believe that concentration, pH and temperature all have an effect on the activity of salivary amylase in the breakdown of starch and thus effect the reaction rate. I base my hypothesis on the following: . Salivary Amylase, also known as ptyalin, is found in saliva and is key to the breakdown of starch. Ptyalin therefore is classified as an enzyme under the following definition. * Enzyme: A protein (or protein-based molecule) that speeds up a chemical reaction in a living organism. 2. It is known that enzyme activity is affected by the three following factors * Concentration of Enzyme * Temperature of Surroundings * pH of Surroundings Therefore we can predict that as we change theses three variables we will notice a change in the activity of salivary amylase. To make further predictions regarding rates of reaction we must take our understanding of salivary amylase as a human protein into account. It is possible to predict as the concentration of salivary amylase is increased we will see an increased rate of reaction as this is constant with all enzymes. We should see an increase in reaction rate as the

• Word count: 2129
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Group 4 Projects

#### age sex pyramids environmental

Age Sex Pyramid ) Developing country: India Current yr: 2008 Population size Crude birth rate Crude death rate Fertility rate Life expectancy Rate of natural increase Doubling time ,148,000,000 22/1000 6/1000 2.8 69 .6% 43.7yrs Total population Male Female 853,724,391 440,668,382 413,056,009 Total population Male Female ,004,124,224 518,116,394 486,007,830 Year 1991 2000 - Expansive population pyramids show larger numbers or percentages of the population in the younger age groups, usually with each age group smaller in size or proportion than the one born before it. These types of pyramids are usually found in populations with very large fertility rates and lower than average life expectancies. The age-sex distributions of Latin American and many Third World countries would probably display expansive population pyramids. Total population Male female ,362,053,154 700,022,547 662,030,607 Total population Male Female ,807,878,574 915,650,957 892,227,617 By the year 2020 - the population of India has exploded, with a massive increase especially in the 0 to 19 age group. Looking at yr 2050 the population seems to be increasing at a decreasing stage. Looking at the figures the total population has increased by about 500 000. 991 2000 2020 2050 Population 853,724,391 ,004,124,224 ,362,053,154 ,807,878,574 Male

• Word count: 1163
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Group 4 Projects

#### Investigating Calories in an Apple

Alexander Zouev Physics IB HL 7/05/06 GROUP 4 PROJECT Umbrella topic: Heat. Subtopic: Heat and an Apple Physics Lab: Investigating Calories in an Apple Aim: To measure the amount of Calories in a fresh average-sized apple, a dry apple ringlet, and an oven-dried apple ringlet using a Calorimeter. Theory: All foods including apples have energy within them. Our human bodies can convert this stored energy that's found in the foods (calories) and convert it into chemical energy which we use and need to do work. A calorie can be defined as "the amount of energy (heat) required to raise the temperature of 1 gram (g) of water 1 degree Celsius (Cº)". The word calorie gets its origins from Latin as the word "calor" actually means "heat" (our umbrella topic!) in Latin. All foods have a specific calorific value - a hamburger has many Calories, a carrot has much less. When calories are written with a capital C, as they mostly are on packaging, it means they are in fact kilocalories (there are 1000 calories in a kilocalorie). A simple way to measure the energy or the calorific value found it foods is by using a calorimeter. We used this device previously in physics to investigate latent and specific heats. It is a device that measures the heat generated by a chemical reaction or a change in state. What the device does is it insulates (at its best) the reaction in order

• Word count: 2087
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Group 4 Projects

#### Group 4 Friction Lab - did Johnny slip from the roof or was he pushed?

Group 4: Coefficient of Kinetic Friction Scenario Pronounced dead at the scene of the crime, poor Johnny is found lying face up on the dance floor, perhaps slipped from his rooftop to the unforgiving stiff dance floor below. Would such a fall have been possible? Or was young Johnny a victim of foul play? The coefficient of kinetic friction is an experimental value which we calculated and compared to values calculated by independent researchers. The ability of the fall to take place is the net force acting upon Johnny, after the subtraction of the force of friction. If this force is greater than zero, such a fall is possible, and becomes more probable as the value of the force increases Given that Johnny's mass and the pitch of the roof are known, all that is left to discover is the coefficient of kinetic friction. This simple experiment involves dragging one material across another, and measuring the minimum amount of force required to do this at a constant velocity. The materials we used were rubber, the same sort found in Johnny's shoes, and a wet asphalt shingle, of the same variety found on Johnny's roof. Our experiment gave us a value of 0.3 for the coefficient of kinetic friction between rubber and wet asphalt, one which was consistent with researched results. Calculations These calculations require vector analysis, all of which is based upon the diagram below.

• Word count: 468
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Group 4 Projects

#### Personal project - I have chosen Human Ingenuity as my Area of Interaction because it is an interesting topic to learn about. I also chose world records because I love to have a challenge in my life, and seeing other people hold weird and wacky records i

I have chosen Human Ingenuity as my Area of Interaction because it is an interesting topic to learn about. I also chose world records because I love to have a challenge in my life, and seeing other people hold weird and wacky records is very interesting to me. Even before I had the idea of trying to beat a record, I thought it was such thrills watching other people reach their achievements and goals of beating a world record. Ever since seeing those people, I've always wanted to beat a world record. World records fit in with Human Ingenuity because it's how people try and achieve their goals to make their dreams come true. This year we learned about human achievements and it interested me a lot. This is why I decided to do World Records for my personal project. This topic interests me because world records are very cool and challenging. World records have always interested me, because it is cool how people can beat these records for crazy and interesting things at any time. World records, such as sword swallowing and another, most scorpions held in mouth. For my project I decided to try and break the world record for most straws in your mouth at once. The current record is 400 straws at once, and held there for 10 seconds. My goal was to beat this world record and have Guinness world records put me in the record book. I picked this goal at first because it was at

• Word count: 1817
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Group 4 Projects

#### Social Science Final Project- How have the events and issues of the 60s impacted your personal life?

Unit 9 Final Project Unit 9 final Project Krystal McGee Kaplan University Social Science 310-05 Jennifer Worley 22 Jun 2010 ________________ How have the events and issues of the 60s impacted your personal life? I was born in 1960 and although I was young and did not understand a lot of what was going on during those days I gained knowledge and understanding of the times through my parents and basically took on their point of view of the world until I was old enough to understand things for myself. The sixties for me was a time in which the living was easy, food was cheap the stores had penny candy and you could actually go places and leave your door unlocked because no one would dare come into your home besides your neighbors would watch out for you. Despite all the turmoil that was occurring in the 60's I must admit I have never felt the peace of mind and safety I once felt in those days long gone, one reason could have been that I was just too young to understand all that was going on around me. I was brought up in a Christian home where my father was a minister with a strong love for God. Although he had been through his share of racial discrimination he instilled in us love for all people regardless of color. He gave us an everyday example of how we were to be treated as well as how we were to treat others. I remember watching the images of violence on the

• Word count: 1715
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Group 4 Projects

#### Global Positioning System (GPS)

IB Diploma ITGS Portfolio: Global Positioning System (GPS) Peripheral Use of the System a. Introduction of the Subject Nowadays, the word "maps" are becoming less popular and has evolved into the word "GPS". Simply, the Global Positioning System is a system of satellites and receiving devices used to compute positions on Earth. The information can be used in a three-way communication for use as positioning system. After much evolution of the GPS technology, it is very useful in tracking down an individual- not only humans, but also animals. A tiny modem, attached to their collar, sends out a text message to a mobile phone, PDA, or other two-way wireless device, whenever a pet leaves any predetermined boundaries. Not only is the owner notified, but the receiver gives directions, and even maps, with certain supported mobile phones, for finding the wandering pet. Many mobile phones, PCs or PDAs already have real-time tracking software readily installed in them, making it accessible and easy to operate. PawTRAX(tm) is an example of an online program that allows users to track their pets. Users can enable geo-fences, and follow the pet's movements in real time. b. The IT Background of the subject Since 2001, developers have tried to analyze using the method of instantaneous positioning for continuous access to high-rate data. The first effort was taken by the Orange County

• Word count: 1080
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Group 4 Projects

#### Environmental sciences Lab-1(Wet Stones Experiment)

EVS LAB-1 (Wet stones experiment) By Arjun Sharma EVS LAB-1 Wet stones experiment Aim: To find the reason for some stones being wet on the river beach. Focused aim : To investigate the level of wetness on different rocks & how different colours & sizes effects the wetness level of rocks. Variables: Control variable: Number of stones Dependant variable: Amount of moisture Independent variable: Size & Colour of rocks Apparatus: * Digital measuring machine * Calculator * Thermometer Hypothesis: * Lighter the weight, dryer it is. * Higher the weight, more wet it is. Risk Assessment: * Since condensation level was high in the morning, Stones tend to be wet, Rubber boots are therefore recommended to wear while collection of the stones. * Since current levels were strong in the morning, not too much close contact with the stream while collecting the rocks is recommended. Method: * First we investigated what time to start the project since condensation level is high in the morning & therefore rocks would be wet in the morning. * Next, we searched through the beach for wet rocks * Different colours & sizes of rocks were collected to see the two above factors effect the temperature of the rocks. * 25 rocks were collected by our group * One by One rocks were kept on the Digital measuring machine & its weight were noted. * Air temperature of the site was

• Word count: 825
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Group 4 Projects

#### Design Technology Investigation

PECHERSK SCHOOL INTERNATIONAL Design Folder - The creation of a USB Roxane Caudron Grade 11 Mr Cuthbert . Specifications: What does a USB Device need to have? ESSENTIAL DESIRABLE ) It must be small enough to fit into a pocket and be easily handled. 2) It must have some area on it where you can attach a keychain or string for holding and practicality. 3) It must be appropriately aesthetically designed according to the desired audience/customer. 4) It must be sturdy and not easily broken if it is dropped or a little roughly handled for example. 5) It has to be water resistant (but not necessarily water-proof) so that it can still function if exposed to a humid environment. 6) It must be easy to insert and eject from the computer- only some force must be required. 7) When inserted it should stay plugged in to the computer and only manage to be plugged out if it is pulled or a certain amount of force is applied to it. This way if someone walks with the computer and tilts it for example or simply repositions the computer the USB will not fall out and no work will be lost. 8) It should have some form of physical protection or cap to apply when not in use avoid the insertion of particles of dust or water into the USB that could compromise its way of functioning. 9) It should have a USB plug at the end of it so i can be plugged into the computer easily- every

• Word count: 4162
• Level: International Baccalaureate
• Subject: Group 4 Projects