diet in sports

BIOLOGY GROUP 4 PROJECT REPORT GROUP 3 GROUP MEMBERS * Nick Kariuki * Peris Mukoko * Eric Mugendi (group leader) * Christine Jobita * Omar Chaudry * Susan Kariuki INTRODUCTION Diet refers to the amount and type of food we eat. In sports, the type of food a player eats determines his performance as well as his general well being. Therefore, the player has to include several key components into his diet, among them carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water. Each of these components has its own important function, and together they form a balanced diet. Components of a balanced diet * Carbohydrates: Provide energy * Proteins: Used for growth and repair of body tissues * Lipids: Used to provide energy, thermal insulation, source of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K * Vitamins: Needed in small amounts for good health, therefore have to be in the diet * Minerals: Occur in form of ions, needed to maintain osmotic balance in cells, some have specific functions e.g. iron is used to transport oxygen, it forms the haem group in haemoglobin * Water: Needed for temperature regulation, maintenance of osmotic pressure and transportation of substances in the body. * Fibre: Comprised mostly of cellulose from plant cell walls. It stimulates movement of food through the gut, thereby aiding digestion Did you know? * Carbohydrates and lipids provide about 70-75%

  • Word count: 991
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Group 4 Projects
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Discuss the ways in which the main characters respond to change in at least two of the literary works you read. (Things Fall Apart & Death of A Salesman)

Discuss the ways in which the main characters respond to change in at least two of the literary works you read. The way the main characters of the books 'Death of a Salesman' by Arthur Miller and 'Things Fall Apart' by Chinua Achebe respond to change is extremely similar. 'Death of a Salesman' is set in New York, in the late 1940's. It is about Willy Loman, a salesman in his late 60s, his wife Linda and his two sons Biff and Happy. Willy Loman is a thorough believer of the concept of the American Dream, but he holds on to it so tightly that everything in his life falls apart. He wished so much for his son Biff to be successful, but when Biff finds Willy cheating on his mother, he himself loses all faith and now, in his early thirties, he has no wife or children and jumps from one job to the next. In the end, Willy commits suicide. "Things Fall Apart" is set in present-day Nigeria in the late 19th century, and it is about Okonkwo, who has risen from nothing to a very high position. He is afraid of being like his father, whom he views as weak, and he despises anyone like him, like his son Nwoye. When Christian missionaries arrive in Umuofia, Okonkwo immediately dislikes them, but the gentle 'new faith' immediately attracts susceptible Nwoye, and this causes for Okonkwo to shun his first son. When the white man tries to impose its culture on the Igbo culture and Umuofia does not

  • Word count: 949
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Group 4 Projects
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Investigating Hydrated Crystals.

Hydrated Crystals Our unknown sample is Unknown A, which is theoretically CuSO4 .5H2O. Table 1: Raw Data Quantitative Observations Mass (g) Uncertainties Mass of crucible 45.74 ± 0.02 Mass of crucible + 3g of hydrated salt 48.72 ± 0.02 Mass of hydrated salt 2.98 ± 0.04 Mass of crucible and contents after heating #1 47.97 ± 0.02 Mass of crucible and contents after heating #2 47.88 ± 0.02 Mass of crucible and contents after heating #3 47.77 ± 0.02 Mass of crucible and contents after heating #4 47.75 ± 0.02 Mass of anhydrous salt 47.75 ± 0.02 Qualitative Observations: When the beaker was covering the evaporating basin on the hot place, it had water vapour lined on its inside. The colour of the salt becomes lighter - from blue crystals and a mixture of lighter blue and white crystals. The texture after the heating appeared to look like ash, suggesting that it was dryer. Questions: (a) Calculate the mass of water in the hydrate. Total mass of water: Weight before heating - Weight after heating #4 48.72 ± 0.02 - 47.75 ± 0.02 = 0.97g Uncertainty of mass of water in hydrated salt: 0.02 + 0.02 = 0.04 Total mass of water = 0.97 ± 0.04 (b) Compare the number of the anhydrous compound to the number of moles of water in the hydrate and use the ratio of these values to predict a formula of the hydrated compound. Mass of anhydrous

  • Word count: 923
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Group 4 Projects
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Culture Shock

To move from Vietnam to the United States, I have been an exchanged student for almost 2 months. It is not smooth for a 16-year-old girl like me to start a new life in the other hemisphere of the Earth. Through the big differences of lifestyles between two countries, I have gained a lot of precious experiences of independence and adaption. As I realize, the most difficult part of a new adventure to another cultural environment is "Culture Shock"! It is the result of the rapid changes of the familiar life. For my own experiments in the US, I would say that Culture Shock is best expressed by 3 factors: Shock of Changes - Miscommunication - and Homesickness. Firstly, it is important to keep in mind the definition of Culture Shock. When a person moves from one culture to another, he suddenly finds it very strange and irrelevant to live in a new community, which is understandable. The person has to get used to the conditions of eating, sleeping, working, communicating, entertaining...etc. even though he does not clearly know how. It takes him some time to be familiar with a new culture. This explains the disoriented feelings of most people being away from their own customs. For me, there have been a lot of changes in the language, the weather, the food and the people since the day I came to the US. During my first two weeks, I could not sleep before midnight due to the difference

  • Word count: 839
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Group 4 Projects
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Environmental sciences Lab-1(Wet Stones Experiment)

EVS LAB-1 (Wet stones experiment) By Arjun Sharma EVS LAB-1 Wet stones experiment Aim: To find the reason for some stones being wet on the river beach. Focused aim : To investigate the level of wetness on different rocks & how different colours & sizes effects the wetness level of rocks. Variables: Control variable: Number of stones Dependant variable: Amount of moisture Independent variable: Size & Colour of rocks Apparatus: * Digital measuring machine * Calculator * Thermometer Hypothesis: * Lighter the weight, dryer it is. * Higher the weight, more wet it is. Risk Assessment: * Since condensation level was high in the morning, Stones tend to be wet, Rubber boots are therefore recommended to wear while collection of the stones. * Since current levels were strong in the morning, not too much close contact with the stream while collecting the rocks is recommended. Method: * First we investigated what time to start the project since condensation level is high in the morning & therefore rocks would be wet in the morning. * Next, we searched through the beach for wet rocks * Different colours & sizes of rocks were collected to see the two above factors effect the temperature of the rocks. * 25 rocks were collected by our group * One by One rocks were kept on the Digital measuring machine & its weight were noted. * Air temperature of the site was

  • Word count: 825
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Group 4 Projects
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HEAT TRANSFER IN SPORTS AIM: DETERMINING THE HEAT GIVEN OUT TO THE SURROUNDING WHILE PLAYING SQUASH AND TABLE TENNIS

GROUP 4 PRESENTATION TITLE: HEAT TRANSFER IN SPORTS AIM: DETERMINING THE HEAT GIVEN OUT TO THE SURROUNDING WHILE PLAYING SQUASH AND TABLE TENNIS To obtain a value for energy change in indoor sports using temperature change within an enclosed area of play. The sports investigated here are squash and table tennis. The exact values for energy change would be calculated using density of air to obtain mass, specific heat capacity of air and temperature using the formulae energy = mass of air × specific heat capacity of air ×temperature change. The energy values would then be compared and appropriate conclusions could be drawn with the data obtained. The sports would be compared based on the amount of energy lost to the surrounding air in form of heat, and whichever sport produced more energy and why. HYPOTHESIS Heat transfer is the process by which heat is given off from a body to the surrounding. When playing a sport, heat is normally generated as a biological mechanism to keep the body cool. Therefore in this experiment we sought to determine if this heat given off could be measured in an enclosed environment in order to determine the effectiveness of the structure in relation to the sport. We took two sports that can be played in an enclosed surrounding: squash and table-tennis. APPARATUS . Meter rule 2. Maximum and minimum thermometer 3. 3 Clinical thermometers 4.

  • Word count: 813
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Group 4 Projects
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Ecosystems: Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis (explained) One of the most common producers is green plants. These organisms absorb light energy from the sun or chemical reactions to convert carbon dioxide to organic matter. Green plants can also use water to convert carbon dioxide to organic compounds such as sugar glucose. The result of this is that it releases oxygen as a by-product. This process driven by light energy is photosynthesis. Using the method of photosynthesis, plants are able to create every complex organic molecule which form their body by using mineral nutrients such as sulphur, phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen which can be retrieved from either soil or water. A green pigment called chlorophyll is one of the molecules that are used to absorb light energy in photosynthesis. It is obvious to be able to identify which plants photosynthesise by looking at they're colour. If it is green, then it photosynthesises. Some examples of these types of plants include the beach grass, shrubs, and maritime forest plants found on Plum Island. There is a huge range of plants that can photosynthesise, whether it be microscopic bacteria or extremely large trees. In every ecosystem, there are always active producers that photosynthesise. AIM The aim of this experiment will be to test the rate of photosynthesis using Gardenia Augusta Magnifica in a warmer environment against a cooler

  • Word count: 795
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Group 4 Projects
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Environmental sciences Lab-2(Stream Pollution)

Evs lab-2 Stream Study Aim: To test a river at different locations to assess pollution levels. Focused aim: To investigate pollution level of the river using bio indicators in the form of insects & dissolved oxygen. Variables: Control variable: Number of sites Dependant variable: Amount of insects, Level of pollution Independent variable: Temperature, pH level, dissolved oxygen & turbidity of the stream Apparatus: > Dissolved oxygen meter > Digital thermometer > Plastic Bowl > Small Plastic cups > Net > Plastic box > pH paper Hypothesis: > Each site will have different Stream Pollution Index > Each site will have different dissolved oxygen levels > Temperature & pH levels for each site will remain constant Risk assessment: > Since we were studying the pollution levels of the stream & using insects as an indicator, there was an added risk that Insects might have been harmful to the human body. Hence contact with insects is not recommended. > Since current levels are high, any footwear in the stream such as flip-flops is not recommended. > Stones are wet & slippery, therefore rubber boots are recommended. Method: o First each site was marked in order to start the experiment. o Stream was divided into 5 sites in order to analyse the stream pollution index of the stream carefully & accurately. o For each site(1-5), Insects were searched & caught by a

  • Word count: 722
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Group 4 Projects
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To check how the rate of transpiration is affected by a change in the PH of the soil/water.

Aim To check how the rate of transpiration is affected by a change in the PH of the soil/water. Apparatus 1.) Hydrilla plant 2.) Test tubes 3.) Paraffin wax 4.) Beaker 5.) NaOH pellets 6.) HCl 7.) PH Paper 8.) Distilled water 9.) Stirrer 10.) Scissors Procedure .) Prepare NaOH solution. Put a few pellets of NaOH in a beaker containing distilled water and stir until the pellets dissolve. This is the dil.NaOH which has a PH of 14. This is checked using the PH paper. 2.) Prepare dil. HCl. Take a beaker containing distilled water and pour 1-2 drops of HCl into it and stir. This gives dil.HCl which when checked with the PH paper gives PH value 1. 3.) Take 5 test tubes labeled a, b, c, d and e. a. This is the control. Take 10ml of distilled water. Pour a drop of paraffin wax into the test tube as this will prevent the water from evaporating in the sunlight. b. Pour 10ml of the dil.NaOH into this test tube followed by a drop of paraffin wax. c. Pour 10ml of the dil.HCl into this test tube followed by a drop of paraffin. d. Take 10ml of tap water and pour into this test tube. The PH of the tap water is taken to be 5.5 as seen using the PH paper. e. Take 10ml of distilled water and pour into this test tube. It has a PH of 7 and is a neutral solution. Now we have 4 test tubes containing different PHs, rating all the way from 1(acidic) to 14(alkaline). 4.) Take

  • Word count: 675
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Group 4 Projects
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Our practical was about examining the reaction of an enzyme in a particular type of food, in which the enzyme break down food and digest the existing proteins inside the materials (food). And to investigate the rate of the enzymes reaction when its get

Report for Group 4 Object Name: Mena Nadum Class: IB07 Date: 05/19/09 Introduction: Our practical was about examining the reaction of an enzyme in a particular type of food, in which the enzyme break down food and digest the existing proteins inside the materials (food). And to investigate the rate of the enzyme's reaction when its get influenced by different types of pH levels. The enzyme we chose for our lab is the Trypsin. The reason why we chose this particular enzyme is first, for the fact that Trypsin has a very high activity which means its reaction is fast and it digests proteins completely in short period of time. Second, it could still react with a wide range of different pH levels. Our experiment was based on the theory that implies: reactions of the enzyme with very high or very low pH level will be very slow. While the reaction reach its high speed if the pH level is at 8 which is called as the optimum of the rate of reaction of the Trypsin. Apparatus The material that is used to perform the experiment is Milk solution. pH solutions: pH 3, pH 4, pH 5, pH 7, pH 8, pH 9 and pH 10. 0.1 g of Trypsin enzyme. Spectra Photometer. A device that maintains the temperature constant. Procedure At the beginning of the experiment, we prepared all the pH solutions needed. And then we started performing our lab by first, mixing the enzyme with one pH level and then

  • Word count: 517
  • Level: International Baccalaureate
  • Subject: Group 4 Projects
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