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International Baccalaureate: History

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  1. Why was the Weimar republic so short lived?

    After WWI Germany was judged responsible for the damages and deaths caused by the war, the Treaty of Versailles was created to decide how to act in respect of the above statement. The Allies chose to make Germany pay for reparations and limit it's army in order to prevent a future outbreak of war. As the Weimar Republic accepted such diminishing terms of the treaty, people always associated the Republic with defeat and dishonor. The rise of nationalists like Adolf Hitler enforced this association even more as the speeches he presented to a quickly increasing amount of people convinced the vast majority of germans that organizations like the Weimar Republic supported the suffering and the issues that were affecting Germany.

    • Word count: 776
  2. To what extent was the arms race the key cause of the Cold War?

    Thus, the race for arms and status had started early, even before there was any possibility for a cold war. The arms race was a competition for supremacy between the USA and USSR and their allies. The race for superior technology was for world domination and a stepping stone for the expansion of the sphere of influence. The superpowers wanted to "become the first one" rather than being ranked at the same level. This could only be achieved by expanding their sphere of influence; the more the artilleries- the more the power.

    • Word count: 882
  3. Assess the importance of nationalism in the unification of Germany until 1866.

    Without nationalism among the common German people, both Prussia and Austria would have no force to unite them under. Nationalism made Germans realize their identity as a nation, thus wish for unification. This was done, for example, with The Wartburg Festival of 1817, where fewer than 500 students attended. Later, there was the Hambach Festival in 1832 where 25,000 people attended. As you can see from the above, the explanation is this: nationalism did not exist at the start- it grew because of the other factors which will be discussed in later paragraphs. Thus, nationalism was a spring towards unification rather than Liberalism, as previously mentioned, was important in making unification come about, because it gave way to nationalism.

    • Word count: 667
  4. Revision notes - British Welfare State, Economics - Keynsianism, monetarism and liberalism

    * OPEC - 5 month embargo on oil to US and Netherlands (supporting Israel) * reduced production -prices skyrocketed - gas shortages in US - consumer goods rose - prices rose - economic slowdown and inflation ? led to the need to change economic strategy ? liberal democracies faced a slowdown in the economy (recession) and inflation - Stagflation ? British PM Callaghan realized that they could no longer spend their way out of recession (Keynesian economics wasn't working!!) D.

    • Word count: 950
  5. Revision notes on Liberalism -philosophy, politics and history

    Tolerance Can vary according to the issue being addressed - moves more towards the social democratic philosophies ? Socially they want greater levels of freedom and personal choice(abortion, same-s*x marriage, gun controls) but will accept more government intervention in politics and economics ? John Stuart Mill ? More inclined to favour humanitarianism, environmental issues Classical Liberalism (Big L) (19th Century) - Def: A political belief in which primary emphasis is placed on securing the freedom of the individual by limiting the power of the state. In its economic form, it advocates a respect for private property and free markets.

    • Word count: 831
  6. To what extent was the Soviet Union under Stalin a totalitarian state?

    In addition, millions of other people disappeared or were also sent to labor camps (Walsh 133). Stalin became more powerful than before as he have gotten rid of his political rivals. He was able to take control over the citizens the way he wanted to since there was no one standing in his way. His aggressiveness resulted in people living in fear and anxiety because no one wanted to challenge his authority. The citizens had no choice but to follow Stalin's rules as they were afraid of ending up in labor camps or getting killed like the rest.

    • Word count: 940
  7. The Missouri Compromise. The fear of politicians was that if Missouri was admitted as a slave state the Louisiana Purchase would be influenced in terms of allowing or disallowing slavery.

    This sudden heightened demand for cotton seemed to reignite the demand for slaves. However, in 1808, Jefferson made the importation of slaves illegal, in turn, creating a huge domestic slave trade. As slavery raged, the large westward acquired territory, known as the Louisiana Purchase, lingered and an unexpected issue arose. According to the Northwest Ordinance, a state could apply for statehood if they had five thousand voting residents and a government. Missouri fit these requirements and applied to become a state, but the large westward territory would surely be influenced by the admission of another slave state in the Union.

    • Word count: 815
  8. Can we know history?

    The historians I will discuss, Gaddis, Brecht, and Hobsbawm, have ideas on how history and the past differ. Gaddis believes that history is what we've extracted from the past. He thinks that history can be known but the past can only be known with our accessible information. We only can learn about the future by using the past, and our knowledge of it. Gaddis thinks that the past is entirely inaccessible and we must use the recorded history to determine future events and possible obstacles.

    • Word count: 635
  9. Analysis of World war 1 music - Analysis of Keep the Fires Burning

    Keep the Home Fires Burning, While your hearts are yearning, Though your lads are far away they dream of home. Theres a silver lining, through the dark clouds shining, Turn the dark cloud inside out 'till the boys come home I believe this song was written at the beginning of the war because, in terms of reflecting general mood of the public, this piece is very cheerful so Canadian's were not tired

    • Word count: 566
  10. Who opposed slavery in the US and why?

    Economic debates over slavery abounded during the 1840's. As abolitionist sentiment grew, much attention began to be focused on whether slavery was beneficial or detrimental to the American economy. The argument was based largely on the concept of free versus slave labor. Free labor, argued anti-slavery groups, would be more economically sound in that it would encourage competition and foreign investment, as well as acting as a lure for immigrants.

    • Word count: 516
  11. Napoleon Rule in France. Revision notes.

    o Went to Egypt. France could threaten Britain's rich eastern trade. o In 1789 Napoleon and an army of 40,000 embarked at Marseilles, and landed in Egypt. * In November 1799, Napoleon called together the council of 500 and demanded that it change the constitution to reflect the views of Sieyes and the other conspirators. o The council of 500 refused and began to hurl abuse at him. * Troops were called in: coup d'�tat of 18 Brumaire. * Abolished a fourth government (since the revolution began ten years before) * Consulate = three parts o Council of state drafted laws o Tribunate debate laws o The legislative assembly passes or rejects legislation without discussion.

    • Word count: 597
  12. Revision notes . Napoleon - Reasons for Second Coalition

    o This treaty resulted in France taking control of numerous Austrian territories. The lands that France took possession of included the Austrian Netherlands (which is now Belgium), a few Mediterranean islands, as well as northern Italy. o As a result of this treaty, France also expanded its borders to the Rhine. o There was also a hate towards the French because of the assassination of Marie Antoinette.

    • Word count: 453
  13. To what extent was the failure of the British Mandate for Palestine attributable to Zionist unity?

    The British government generally adopted their recommendations, then changed its mind and sent more commissions to Palestine. Britain didn't do any economic beneficial during the time they were in Palestine instead they left with unsettlements because they gave out promises they didn't meant to. Britain wanted to have Palestine equally split between the Zionists and the Arabs; however this was never going to happen. This is because either side wouldn't agreed upon their agreements on sharing land. Jews and Arabs in Palestine both wished to gain an independent state under British's sponsorship. The British believed that setting up a national home state for the Jews would not hurt the Arabs.

    • Word count: 832
  14. Origins of WWI. Throughout The Origins of World War One, Dr Gary Sheffield examines the origins of the conflict.

    Germany however, was quite conscious of this and therefore wanted to overtaken Britain. Europe was split into two sides, the Triple Entente and the Central Powers. In the Summer of 1914, Germany was already filling to risk a full scale war. Despite a war with Russia, Germany continued to order the blank cheque; this way, she would be able to break up the Entente. The most dramatic of interpretations however, relate to how Germany had already been planning an aggressive war since December 1912 (Kaiser).

    • Word count: 603
  15. What were the reasons and results for the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan?

    Two years after the Second World War, countries were reeling under its economic repercussions. Britain was one of the most affected with its government owing over three billion pounds in debt. Overcome by this, the British government could not maintain its troops and aid in Greece, which was at that time undergoing a civil war in which the Monarchists, who were receiving British aid, were in conflict with the Communists. The United States viewed a communist takeover of Greece as absolutely disastrous; if such were to occur, a valuable ally which could prove vital due to its strategic position if were to break out, would be lost.

    • Word count: 975
  16. The Yalta Conference and Cold War ideologies

    It was also agreed upon that Germany would have to pay reparations for the damage caused and that 50% of the 20 billion that should be payed will go to the USSR. Post-war Germany was elabortated and it was connived that Germany shall be de-Nazified, demilitarised and disarmed. The greatest problem however was post-war Poland. The Allies and Stalin agreed that the polish boarder should move back to where it had been before the Russo-Polish war of 1921. This served to the USSR as a bufffer zone so it would have enough time to react should a country try and attack.

    • Word count: 757
  17. Timeline of WW1 - the balance of power in Europe in the 19th Century

    resources) to extend Hohenzollem hegemony (to collect all the power) throughout German states, isolate France to avoid a war on two fronts. France is humiliated by the loss of Alsace-Lorraine and the imposition of war reparations in the Treaty of Frankfurt. (Wanted to isolate France by being extremely harsh towards the French.) -France was humiliated by the loss of their land and had to pay a huge amount of reparations. -Formation of the Dreikaiserbund (Three Emperors' League) (GRAh) 1873 Germany, Russia and Austria Hungary form an alliance, keep France isolated.

    • Word count: 759
  18. Why did the Allies win the Battle of the Atlantic?

    These improvements helped the Allies win the Battle of the Atlantic by making the U-boat threat their top priority. So in order to beat the U-boats, the intelligence was improved. The British code breakers at Bletchley Park became better at decoding the German codes. This allowed them to figure out the location of the U-boats so transferring conveys became easier. They would guide conveys away from the U-boat wolf packs and so there would be no interference. This helped the Allies import materials they could not before and these imports helped the civilians and the navies. Another reason for why the allies won the battle of the Atlanic was because they got new weapons.

    • Word count: 604
  19. How far do you agree with the view that the peninsular war played the prime role in Napoleons downfall?

    The first of these was his decision to leave Spain in the hands of marshals at the beginning of 1809 when he was facing trouble from the Austrian army. Napoleon's decision to divert experienced troops from Spain to fight in Austria and then in Russia weakened his chances in Spain. Napoleon had to fight a war on both the western and eastern front. No matter how great a general Napoleon was, he could not be everywhere at once. This led to a high loss of men in his army, the battle Aspern-Essling in May lost him 20,000 men and again at Wagram he lost 32,000 of his men.

    • Word count: 925
  20. How far do you agree that, for the GDR, the results of the building of the Berlin Wall proved to be mainly negative?

    o There was no escaping the fact that building the wall was a very visible practical and symbolic sign of a government imprisoning its own population. This simply gave the West even more opportunities for propaganda to demonstrate the superiority of capitalism. o The shooting of GDR citizens attempting escapes were given huge publicity in the West and did the GDR's reputation no good at all (e.g. Peter Fechter's bleeding to death next to the wall was shown live on West German television)

    • Word count: 790
  21. suffragettes info

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    • Word count: 700
  22. Thomas Jefferson favored strong state government and an agricultural society. Alexander Hamilton was in favor of a strong federal government and an industrial society. These disputes over the ideas about the economy and the government between Thomas Jeffe

    In the 1790's Washington went in to office, and appointed his members for his cabinet. In President Washington's cabinet there were disputes between two of the members, Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. They both had different ideas about how the new nation should be run. These two men expressed their feelings to the public. The citizens started to choose the side they agreed with. The citizens started to turn against each other because of the different point of views about the government and the economy.

    • Word count: 638
  23. I would like to analyse the two major ideologies of the 20th century, left wing Soviet Marxism-Leninism in the times of Lenin and the right wing Facism under the rule of Mussolini.

    However he died in 1883, too early to see his ideas put into political practice. Lenin,calling himself a Marxist was soon busy interpeting,reintepreting and adapting his ideas to Marx's ideology when organizing the Red revolutionary forces in Russia in 1918. Unlike Marx who appreciated the Kants moral imperatives, Lenin believed that one may cheat,steal, betray friends in order to further the class struggle. He established the infamous secret police KGB that limited people's freedoms and got rid of the counterrevolutionaries-chistkas. This meant that bringing of communism to power as well as sustaining of the power cost lives of thousands of elite intellectuals.

    • Word count: 700
  24. With reference to examples, describe how, and explain why expression of conflict varies.

    For example, a peaceful conflict could be The Orange Revolution in Ukraine, where the use of force was not involved, and instead civil disobedience, sit-ins and general strikes occurred. This was a successful expression of conflict, and the outcome was successful, with Viktor Yushchenko (opposition) being elected. This conflict was contained, and showed how goals can be achieved without the necessary route of war. However, a violent conflict such as the one in Libya caused terrible problems that are still going on today.

    • Word count: 659
  25. The American Declaration of Independence and the views of the Loyalists.

    This fabricated document was written and signed by fifty six delegates representing the thirteen colonies to show that as if every person in those colonies was in accordance with the decision of the Continental Congress. However, it was not true. In fact, a third of the colonies' population is still allegiant to the king. The opinions of us Loyalists were simply ignored.

    • Word count: 675

"The function of the historian is neither to love the past nor to emancipate himself from the past, but to master and understand it as the key to the understanding of the present."
E. H. Carr

If you love scouring the text of a dusty old book to get a glimpse of the author's life, then you should consider choosing history as one of your International Baccalaureate (IB) subjects. History is one of ten subjects in group 3 of the diploma programme, and it offers students a solid grounding in medieval or modern history, interpreted through the lens of world history.

If you plunge into this course without good essay-writing skills to guide you, you could quickly find yourself adrift. Prepare yourself by studying Marked by Teachers' collection of IB history papers. Study the marked examples to gain insight into what makes a great essay; you'll soon be editing your own papers with a teacher's critical eye.

Higher Level (HL) history is known for its rigour, so if you do well, and your overall marks are good too, you'll end up with a wide range of historical, philosophical and social studies university courses to choose from.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent was socialism better in dealing with social, economical and political problems in the USSR than democracy was in the United States

    "In conclusion socialism to a large extent was a more successful ideology in the USSR politically since it established a strong socialist state, socially since it abolished all ranks in society and economically because it industrialized the nation. To a small extent democracy in the USA was more successful since there were rights and freedom for the citizens and it economically based on a supply and demand theory."

  • To what extent was the Spanish American War of 1898 a turning point in the emergence of the United States as a world power?

    "To conclude, with the acquisition of the Philippines, just off the coast of China, and of Hawaii and Guam, the USA had now stepping stones which gave it an advantageous position to access the Asian market. Also, the USA had control over Cuba which gave it control over the sugar and tobacco industries and most of the Cuban business. Also, having Cuba and Puerto Rico under control asserted some of the USA's influence and authority in the Caribbean. Also, the change in the US's view of world affairs lead to the construction of the Panama Canal which was essential for USA's trading because it joined the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and it avoided the long and adventurous route around Cape Horn. Many other conquests and takeovers took place following the Spanish-American War, which asserted the power the USA all over the world. So, the Spanish-American War of 1898 marked the change in America's non-involvement policy and interest in world affairs, and, consequently, marked its emergence as a major world power."

  • To what extent was the rise to power of Mao due to personal appeal and ability?

    "In conclusion, it was Mao Zedong's personal appeal which won him a lot of support in the political sphere. By being extensively involved in Party Affairs, Mao was able to showcase his tremendous leadership capabilities. Furthermore, Mao's guerilla tactics not only had a big hand in weakening the Kuomintang's forces but they also won support from the majority Peasant population on which he applied his Sino-Marxist ideals to create a Peasant Run Proletariat. The overwhelming amount of support for Mao generated through the Proletariat and the manipulation of the major tactical flaws of the Kuomintang prevented them to take any further action against the Party. Mao Zedong then went on to become the first chairman of the Communist Party of China in 1943, which was followed by him being named the President of the People's Republic of China in 1958. Thus, Mao's rise to power was due to his personal appeal and his ability to a great extent."

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