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International Baccalaureate: History

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 3
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  1. Marked by a teacher

    How far do Trotsky(TM)s own misjudgments account for his failure in the power struggle which followed Lenin(TM)s death?

    4 star(s)

    He had Lenin's support, as shown in Lenin's testament, "Comrade Trotsky... is distinguished not only by his outstanding ability. He is personally perhaps the most capable man in the present Central Committee." Although Lenin did present a criticism of Trotsky, "he has displayed excessive self-assurance," he was praised much more than the other candidates for leadership. Trotsky was also the Commissar for War, and was therefore in control of the Red Army. He had proved himself to be a skilled military commander in the Civil War, and had the support of his troops. Trotsky was also a skilled intellectual, colleague Anatoli Lunacharsky said of him, "Trotsky had remarkable gifts as an orator and a writer.

    • Word count: 1402
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Compare and Contrast the Policies of Alexander II and Alexander III

    3 star(s)

    Tsars Alexander II and Alexander III differed on the level of Foreign policy, Judicial and Educational Reforms but they shared a sense of Russian Nationalism. Both Tsars Alexander II and Alexander III had different view points on Foreign Policy. Alexander II pushed for military conquests and urged annexation of the nearest countries to augment the size of the Russian Empire. Through the advancement of the Russian army in the Caucuses, even more area was added to the empire. For example, the Russia military started a campaign against the khanate of Khiva.

    • Word count: 1077
  3. Marked by a teacher

    To what extent was the alliance system responsible for the outbreak of World War One in 1914?

    Frictions between the groups had brought Europe to the verge of war several times after 1900, and were indirectly influential in generating a world war out of the Balkan conflict between Serbia and Austria-Hungary. Although the alliance systems were intended to provide mutual defence, they encouraged war equally well by providing military support. In my opinion the most important alliance in the lead up to WW1 was the Austria-Hungary and Germany alliance. Germany gave full support to A-H in case of war in July.

    • Word count: 1005
  4. A comparison about Mussolinis and Hitlers domestic policies.

    To raise Germany's own economy, it was not unusual that the Germans forced foreign countries to buy their goods or forcing the other country to accept goods instead of cash for goods they had bought from them. Even though Mussolini did not know a lot about economy, he managed, just like Hitler, to decrease the country's unemployment range and increase its economy. An example of Mussolini's successful self-sufficiency is that 1945 wheat imports had been cut by 75 per cent.

    • Word count: 1036
  5. Analyze the methods used and the conditions which helped in the rise to power of one ruler of a single-party state:

    his success to the death of Hindenburg which caused the German citizens to choose him as a leader in the absence of a valid alternative. Adolf Hitler began to express his thoughts by engaging in public speeches at national socialist groups, convincing people that the enemy were Jews and Comunists. This allowed him to quickly discover his greatest skill- persuasion. His speaking skills were able to persuade listeners into thinking what he thought. As his name became more and more famous, Hitler creates his image; he designs his own symbol- the swastika and cuts back his mustache to acquire a distinct look which people would remember.

    • Word count: 1138
  6. Assess the successes and failures of Nicholas II between 1849 and 1917:

    In 1898, Russia took control of the peninsula gaining resources, territory and Port Arthur. Russia's intention was technically limited to lease the territory. However, the Japanese government saw the Russian occupation as an undesired threat as it was influencing Korea and the extension of the Trans-Siberian railway seemed like the true intention was to keep the territory permanently. After numerous unsuccessful attempts to negotiate, Japan declared war to Russia on February 8, 1904. Russia took victory for granted as the conviction of having more and better resources and men power was very popular, instead, Russia got defeated, thus making Japan look like one of the superpowers of the world and diminishing the Russian confidence towards the government and eliminating any patriotism in the country.

    • Word count: 1243
  7. Analyze the long term and short term causes of the 1917 February/March Russian Revolution

    The royal family, the noble part of the society and clergy owned most of the land fit for agriculture, but most of the peasants owned only between 3 to 10 acres of land and many of them had to earn their livelihood only with 2.5 acres or less. Peasants had to pay high prices for the rent of the land to their landlords and in addition the lack of proper tools for agriculture worsened the situation. The situation was also worsened by implements and methods of cultivation, which not too productive.

    • Word count: 1551
  8. Causes of WW1. How valid is the claim that in 1914, states went to war due to fear rather than motives for gain.

    In 1904, the Morroccan Crisis occurred, adding to tensions between the European states. Britain had given Morocco to France, however the Moroccans desired their independence. In 1905, Germany announced her support against France for Moroccan independence and in 1911, the Germans were again against France's possession of Morocco. Along with the fight over Alsace-Lorraine, Germany's support for Moroccan independence added greatly to tensions between them and France as well as tensions between them and Britain. The Bosnian Crisis in 1908 also added to tensions between Austria-Hungary and Serbia. In 1908, Austria-Hungary officially annexed Bosnia igniting outrage in Serbia and Russia.

    • Word count: 1071
  9. Argentina v. Chile. Even though these two countries are in different locations in Latin America and ruled by different leaders, they both have their similarities and their differences.

    Its first constitution was drafted in 1853 and its government was formed in 1861. Location wise, Argentina was full of agricultural land which plays a big role in their economy which at one point helped them become one of the world's ten wealthiest nations. Around the time of the United States stock market crash, Argentina also faced a time of instability which caused its constitutional government to be overthrown in 1943. When that happened, Juan Domingo Peron became the country's political leader then president in 1946. He was reelected in 1952 but later exiled in 1955 because of the government's instability.

    • Word count: 1347
  10. How did questionable leadership actions involving the Battle of Gettysburg ultimately decide the outcome of the battle and possibly the Civil War?

    This Act was to settle the slavery issue for Kansas, but instead only caused higher tensions and b****y riots. No compromise could be reached between the Union and Confederacy in this time leading up to the presidential election of 1860. In 1860 Abraham Lincoln was elected president, but had lost every state in the traditional south, and for southerners this meant that they were further neglected and hope for their cause was lost. Shortly after the election, South Carolina seceded in January of 1861 and Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas followed.

    • Word count: 1722
  11. Assess the aims of two countries entering the First World War. To what extent were they successful in achieving their aims?

    This is clearly seen in the summer of 1911, when Germany demanded the whole of French Congo as compensation for leaving Morocco alone. This ties in to Germany's next aim, which was to catch up and eventually dominate other industrial powers. Britain and France were such powers, and perhaps Wilhelm II acted in 1905 in Morocco as a desperate attempt to prevent French control of the nation. He did this by telling the Sultan of Morocco that he recognizes it as an independent nation; if Moroccan independence was brought into concern, the French would not have it- a clear victory for the Germans.

    • Word count: 1015
  12. Israeli- Palestinian Conflict. I chose this topic due to my personal connection with the Palestinian- Israeli conflict. My grandparents, who were born and raised in Palestine, were forced to relocate and move the neighboring country of Jordan in order to

    To this day, Palestinians and Israelis alike are being killed over border disputes. Violence in the region has spanned over centuries, and it is a failure of humanity for the inability to produce a solution that will help these two groups of people co-exist peacefully. In 1948, a British mandate system created the country of Israel inside of a territory known as Palestine2. This mandate failed to recognize the Arabs that had lived there for thousands of years, and it displaced approximately 730,000 Arab civilians, which ultimately began the long, b****y history of the two nations, as well as conflict with surrounding Arab nations.

    • Word count: 1092
  13. The emancipation of the serfs in Russia was the only genuine reform introduced by Alexander II. To what extent do you agree with this assertion? The emancipation of the serfs in Russia was the only genuine reform introduced by Alexand

    There can be no doubt that the reform defrauded the peasants. (...)", I would say that the end of serfdom was even less efficient in the end than some other undertaken reforms. In my work, in each paragraph I will evaluate introduced by Tsar reforms, starting with agriculture, then army, education and eventually local government and legal reforms, to show their strengths and weaknesses and to prove their efficiency comparing with the end of serfdom in Russia. Freedom of the serfs in Russia was one of the main social changes and achievements of Alexander II.

    • Word count: 1126
  14. To what extent did ideology play a role in helping Hitler come to power in 1933?

    Anti-Semitism had always been a popular ideology in Europe where the Jews were seen as misers due to their occupation, which was generally as moneylenders. Most of the time this meant that they were rich and successful again creating a lot of anger towards them. Hitler built on this and blamed the deterioration of Germany, the signing of the Treaty of Versailles and the many economic crises on the Jews. During a time of hatred and uncertainty the German people readily accepted, and even to some extent due to Hitler manipulation skills and use of scapegoats, this chance to blame their problems on someone else.

    • Word count: 1602
  15. To what extent is there validity to Ilan Pappes argument that the Palestinians were victims of a deliberate Israeli policy of ethnic cleansing in 1948?

    * Were not really "refugees" * Plan D didn't actually state the idea of ethnic cleansing. Was vague. * Was there to counter the incoming Arab attacks on the newly created state * More Arabs against the Jews. The Jews had been persecuted and were refugees themselves. * The Arabs were ill prepared. * Jews encourages the Palestinians to stay put. * Arab villages in Galilee were left intact. To what extent is there validity to Ilan Pappe's argument that the Palestinians were victims of a deliberate Israeli policy of "ethnic cleansing" in 1948? Ethnic cleansing is "the mass expulsion or killing of members of an unwanted ethnic or religious group in a society", as Ilan Pappe suggests happened in the 1948 to the Palestinians by the Jews in the newly established state of Israel.

    • Word count: 1980
  16. Lenins Rise to Power Essay

    At the time of the Bolshevik Communist seizure of power in October 1917 Russia had, for more than three years, been involved in the First World War. The turmoils associated with this major war inevitably produced much economic dislocation and many shortages of essential items including food, fuel and clothing. Agricultural and Industrial production were down from the levels of 1913. Perhaps a third of Russia's working horses had been diverted towards direct services associated with the war. The railways were suffering from disrepair and parts shortages.

    • Word count: 1623
  17. To what extent did Samuel Adams use of propaganda and strategy influence loyalists toward adopting anti-British policies?

    * In 1747 Adams created a club for discussing political problems (Alexander 7). * Adams published his Independent Advertiser essays in the 1740's based upon the works of John Locke (Alexander 8). * Adams was sympathetic toward the taxpayers. He failed to collect the amount required, which resulted in conflict with the British (Canfield 7). * Adams was reelected by the town meeting as a tax collector for Boston multiple times despite his failure to collect his quota (Lewis 24). * During this period, Adams carefully challenged Parliament while avoiding being declared as disloyal (Alexander 20).

    • Word count: 1961
  18. To what extent do you agree with the assessment that Alexander II proved to be a disappointing liberal?

    By making it communal landowning, the serfs couldn't leave their land because they couldn't afford it. The nobility had larger portions of land; they also had the fertile land therefore the serfs were in a much worse position. The serfs had less land than before and to make the situation worse, they had a large debt to pay. The communities greatly delayed production, and Russia did not have a labor force, which stopped her from entering a full scale industrial revolution. The emancipation seemed to have given the serfs more freedom, but with this freedom came huge amounts of responsibility, this freedom was not real.

    • Word count: 1184
  19. Did Germany plan and wage a deliberate war of aggression in 1914?

    The Schlieffen plan was a strategy devised by Count Alfred Von Schlieffen in order to succeed against Russia and France by avoiding the war of two fronts. The strategy was to take advantage of the anticipated differences in the three countries speed in preparing for war. To be exact, the main point was to avoid a war of two fronts by focusing all the troops in the Western front, quickly defeating France and then rapidly turning its forces on to the Eastern front, Russia.

    • Word count: 1608
  20. To what extent was the Spanish Civil war caused by the actions of Mola in 1936

    The result was that the army became more prioritized within Spain, this was important as it was the reason why Primo de Rivera's coup succeeded against the Spanish King Alfonso XIII who was in conflict with the Spanish politicians due to his anti-democratic views. It was no surprise that the Spanish population, especially the middle/upper class as they dominated the jobs of officers and generals, supported Miguel Primo de Rivera in his military uprising against the monarchy because of Alfonso's humiliating defeat for Spain in the 1921 Moroccan War.

    • Word count: 1476
  21. World War 2. To what extent was Italy involved in Operation Barbarossa?

    I also intend to compare interpretations of different historians, found on websites such as Spartacus.co.uk, and use their quotations to support my arguments in order to create an encompassing and multifaceted exploration and knowledge of the extent of the Italian participation in the Operation Barbarossa. Summary of evidences(760 ) Italian participation in the Eastern Front during World War II began after the launch of Operation Barbarossa on 22 June 1941. Barbarossa was the secret plan that Germany had thought of in order to defeat her biggest enemy: Russia.

    • Word count: 1979
  22. To What Extent was Arab Zionist Tension the Result of the Interference of Foreign Powers in the Middle East

    The Sykes-Picot agreement between the British, French and Russian agreed to divide the areas promised to the Arabs between themselves. In 1918 the British had taken control of the Palestine region and did not give it to the Arabs as promised. This betrayal was furthered by the Balfour declaration which was lobbied for by the influential Jew Chaim Weizmann. This memorandum stated the British intention to help create a "homeland" for the Jews in Palestine in sympathy for the Zionist cause and movement.

    • Word count: 1440
  23. Aviation at the Start of the First World War

    Because of its small carrying capacity, and the necessity for its operating at great altitude, if it is to escape hostile fire, the amount of damage it will do by dropping explosives upon cities, forts, hostile camps, or bodies of troops in the field to say nothing of battleships at sea, will be so limited as to have no material effects on the issues of a campaign...." (Angelucci, Enzo, and Matricardi, Paolo. 2) Despite the unfair criticism towards the use of aeroplanes as a war weapon, some effort was made to use aircraft for military purposes.

    • Word count: 1101
  24. The Importance of Cavour, Mazzini and Garibaldi to Italian Unification

    One Italian who's idea it was to have a Liberal Italian republic was Giuseppe Mazzini. Although unsuccessful in his conspiracies, Mazzini succeeded in igniting a feeling of nationalism in the people of the Italian states. In Marseille 1831, Giuseppe Mazzini founded the "Young Italy" group. Through "Young Italy" and the thousands of articles, which Mazzini wrote, smuggled into Italy and published in young Italy's newspaper or elsewhere, Mazzini publicised his ideas of Liberalism and Nationalism. Mazzini fashioned the idea of a "free independent republican nation". He reached the people and gave them a reason to revolt.

    • Word count: 1198
  25. The Domestic Policies of Stalin

    Through collectivisation Stalin's control over his people increased as he now had nearly complete control over the peasants who made up 80% of the population. This brings Stalin closer to being a totalitarian leader as he had entire control over the majority of the population. Stalin did not only coerce the peasants to work hard during the first five year plan he also forced the factory workers in the city to increase their production. In the factories, display boards were set up which showed the output of the workers and increased the pressure upon them and so increased Stalin's control over them.

    • Word count: 1553

"The function of the historian is neither to love the past nor to emancipate himself from the past, but to master and understand it as the key to the understanding of the present."
E. H. Carr

If you love scouring the text of a dusty old book to get a glimpse of the author's life, then you should consider choosing history as one of your International Baccalaureate (IB) subjects. History is one of ten subjects in group 3 of the diploma programme, and it offers students a solid grounding in medieval or modern history, interpreted through the lens of world history.

If you plunge into this course without good essay-writing skills to guide you, you could quickly find yourself adrift. Prepare yourself by studying Marked by Teachers' collection of IB history papers. Study the marked examples to gain insight into what makes a great essay; you'll soon be editing your own papers with a teacher's critical eye.

Higher Level (HL) history is known for its rigour, so if you do well, and your overall marks are good too, you'll end up with a wide range of historical, philosophical and social studies university courses to choose from.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent was socialism better in dealing with social, economical and political problems in the USSR than democracy was in the United States

    "In conclusion socialism to a large extent was a more successful ideology in the USSR politically since it established a strong socialist state, socially since it abolished all ranks in society and economically because it industrialized the nation. To a small extent democracy in the USA was more successful since there were rights and freedom for the citizens and it economically based on a supply and demand theory."

  • To what extent was the Spanish American War of 1898 a turning point in the emergence of the United States as a world power?

    "To conclude, with the acquisition of the Philippines, just off the coast of China, and of Hawaii and Guam, the USA had now stepping stones which gave it an advantageous position to access the Asian market. Also, the USA had control over Cuba which gave it control over the sugar and tobacco industries and most of the Cuban business. Also, having Cuba and Puerto Rico under control asserted some of the USA's influence and authority in the Caribbean. Also, the change in the US's view of world affairs lead to the construction of the Panama Canal which was essential for USA's trading because it joined the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and it avoided the long and adventurous route around Cape Horn. Many other conquests and takeovers took place following the Spanish-American War, which asserted the power the USA all over the world. So, the Spanish-American War of 1898 marked the change in America's non-involvement policy and interest in world affairs, and, consequently, marked its emergence as a major world power."

  • To what extent was the rise to power of Mao due to personal appeal and ability?

    "In conclusion, it was Mao Zedong's personal appeal which won him a lot of support in the political sphere. By being extensively involved in Party Affairs, Mao was able to showcase his tremendous leadership capabilities. Furthermore, Mao's guerilla tactics not only had a big hand in weakening the Kuomintang's forces but they also won support from the majority Peasant population on which he applied his Sino-Marxist ideals to create a Peasant Run Proletariat. The overwhelming amount of support for Mao generated through the Proletariat and the manipulation of the major tactical flaws of the Kuomintang prevented them to take any further action against the Party. Mao Zedong then went on to become the first chairman of the Communist Party of China in 1943, which was followed by him being named the President of the People's Republic of China in 1958. Thus, Mao's rise to power was due to his personal appeal and his ability to a great extent."

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