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International Baccalaureate: History
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Facts and text taken from: Davis , Matthew. "Introduction." Clash of Cultures int the 1910s and 1920s. Harvey Goldberg Program for Excellence in Teaching, Department of History at The Ohio State University. 13 Jan 2008 <http://ehistory.osu.edu/osu/mmh/clash/Introduction/Intro.ht Prohibition: One area of conflict centered on Prohibition -the effort to ban alcohol consumption. This effort began in the 1800s, but it was not until 1920 that people succeeded in passing a constitutional amendment that banned the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages.
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The Congress System was a genuine attempt by the Great Powers(TM) to provide a unified policy but their interests were too diverse for it to succeed. To what extent do you agree with this judgment?
A healthy power balance was maintained, as all powers respected each other, and none assumed superiority over any other participants. And no autocratic figure who threatened a Europe- (and world-) wide war arose until the 1930s, in Hitler and Mussolini. In this way, the Congresses can be said to have been a success, in that they achieved their main aims for a great amount of time. A further success could be said to be the affect the Congresses had on world politics, even to this day.
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As requested by the Tsar this classified profile identifies Raskolnikovas as a worthy adversary for the Russian Government or the Okhrana. Written to satisfy the purpose of the Tsar the profile examines Raskolnikovas' current affiliations as well as his history. Mikhail Vladimir Raskolnikovas, a male, born on 16 October, 1880, as we understand, has been in isolation for 3 years at the unknown naval base. At the age of 23 Raskolninikovas illustrates vital attributes substantial to the Okhrana as well as the Russian Government.
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He had the chance to do this even prior to Lenin's death when Stalin failed to handle the Georgian minority during the civil war which caused him Lenin's serious anger. If Trotsky has acted at that time and got involved into the problem probably Stalin was going to lose his position at the party. But as source D claims Trotsky ''was not tactician'' he wanted to build his position in the party through hard work and by being loyal to the Marxist theory.
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It is generally accepted under historians, that Leon Trotsky was the main character in organising and executing the successful Bolshevik revolution or coup d'etat. Even Joseph Stalin acknowledges his major rival's role in these events in Pravda, November 10, 1918, by saying: "All practical work in connection with the organization of the uprising was done under the immediate direction of Comrade Trotsky, the President of the Petrograd Soviet. It can be stated with certainty that the Party is indebted primarily and principally to Comrade Trotsky for the rapid going over of the garrison to the side of the Soviet and the efficient manner in which the work of the Military Revolutionary Committee was organized."
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The Land Reforms aim was to change these circumstances and so land owners were prohibited to possess more than 200 feddans (�200 acres) of land. However, fathers with more than 2 children were allowed to own 300 feddans. A limit on the rental rate for land was set and land leases were given a minimum duration of three years. Furthermore the government established co-operatives for farmers holding less than five feddans. The members of these co-operatives worked together to share supplies such as fertilisers, pesticides, and seeds and a minimum wage for agricultural workers was set.
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oppression of the old Empires, but the case against such a nation argued that the Slavs did not have enough in common to have a full nation, and that the formation of a Slavic state would be an invitation for other great powers to take advantage of the new nation. The most obvious way to define the Slavs would to be though their language- several languages including Czech, Slovak, Croatian, Bosnian and Serbian, among others. However, most of these languages are not mutually intelligible, which would make for incompatible relations between regions if they existed in the same state.
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It could also be argued that American and European statesmen did manage to make the Versailles settlement work and were well on the way to solving the German problem peacefully, and that WWII was far from inevitable. Perhaps it was the Great Depression (could have been caused from WWI) brought Hitler into power caused WWII 2 The Peace Settlements In what ways did the Peace Treaties reflect the intentions of the victorious powers? How effective were the peace treaties in laying the foundations for a new peaceful postwar world?
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This was due to two main problems: his inability to properly analyze several crucial political situations (particularly when it came to domestic affairs) and the impediments which seriously hampered the changes he proposed. Many modern European rulers show a trend when dealing with problems that in one way or another involve the concept of nationalism. The similarity in all rulers (especially conservative ones) is that they tend to underestimate it. At the time, the Habsburg Empire was composed of a dozen major racial groups.
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Summary of Evidence Section I: The villagers of Morelos joined a broader rebellion against the president Porfirio Diaz, fighting against haciendas who oppressively infringed land, water and local rights, struggling to recover lost resources (Brunk 11). Some important figures emerged from this revolution, including Francisco Madero, a well educated man who advocated political reform- many workers supported him because they believed that he actually "heard their complaints" (Kirkwood 134). Pancho Villa, on the other hand, portrayed the view point of the northern sector of Mexico (Brunk 15).
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The Tsar was an incompetent leader who made many crucial errors during the war. This led to economic problems, rising deaths, famine and led to a loss of morale in faith in the Tsar's authority and power. In addition, the Tsarist regime was plagued by scandals such as the Tsarina's involvement with Rasputin. The above problems led to disillusionment with the Tsarist regime on the people's part; as such, they were more receptive to Lenin and the Bolsheviks, who promised them solutions to their problems.
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On Black Tuesday, investors panicked and dumped an unprecedented 16 million shares. The increased buying of stocks damaged Americans' credit, made the effects of the stock market crash worse. As a result, within one month, American investors had lost tens of billions of dollars. If stockholders couldn't pay up, their stocks were sold, wiping out many an investor's ife savings in an instant. In total, $25 billion was lost in the 1929 crash. Stocks continued to fall over many weeks until bottoming out on November 13, 1929. The stock market wouldn't recover to its pre-crash numbers until 1954.
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The Zollverein was basically the climax of the creation of smaller unions throughout the 1820s. Through this, Prussia benefited by securing successful links between its western and eastern territories, and by establishing its economic influence above that of Austria in German businesses. The Zollverein allowed free charge of all goods being moved between the Prussian areas; the nation taxed all goods being moved to Prussia with the exception of raw material since raw material was important for their industry. As a consequence for this plan, Prussia had rapid economic growth but they still had desires to have much better economy,
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Nevertheless Francophone kept arguing the unfairness of the Manitoba Schools Act and the Laurier-Greenway Compromise that Anglophone has abased the place of French-Canadians and their culture. However, considering the efficiency, the Laurier-Greenway Compromise was the most appropriate solution for that time; compared to 1871 when there were 816 students in 16 Protestant schools and 639 students in 17 Roman Catholic schools, by 1889 there were 18,850 students in 534 Protestant schools and only 4,364 students in 96 Roman Catholic schools (Wade 27).
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Lincoln understood that what he wanted wouldn't become true without surrendering. "He expected Grant, "the remorseless killer," and Sherman, "destruction's own self," to "fight without mercy as long there must be fighting, but when the fighting stopped they [must] try to turn old enemies into friends." (Wortham, 156) It is said that Lincoln knew his citizens, and that he was confident that while they were politically disunited, the raw material of reconciliation resided in their hearts. (Wortham, 156) On Palm Sunday, April 9, 1865 white flags of truce were held up and there was a cease fire that remained until the surrender meeting with Grant and Lee was held.
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"The achievements of the Nationalist government of China between 1928 and 1937 have been greatly under-estimated." To what extent do you agree with this statement?
His government introduced four national banks to control the countries financial conditions. A national tax was introduced. There was some industrial progress in the light industries such has flour production and chemical materials and imports from the west regarding machinery and other industrial equipment. Also, western powers re-established tariff independence to china and control over salt trade. Economic reforms were not very successful. Most developments that were made were only concentrated in the urban areas. The tax collection was not efficient and corrupt. Rural poverty was still in existence near the cities. Rural income of a normal Chinese person was $26 per year, which was spent on rent and payments on debt.
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Jefferson was ambassador to France and Marshall played a big role in ratifying the constitution. Before Marshall was appointed to the Supreme Court he had been a " frontier soldier, lawyer and legislator, diplomat, pamphleteer and the Secretary of State for John Adams. (Wernick, 115) Marshall became a national hero in 1797, when as one of three Americans envoys sent to Paris to negotiate a treaty with the government of revolutionary France. Marshall saw the X, Y, Z Affair as "dishonorable and an affront to the United States of America". (Wernick, 115) Jefferson became mad at Marshall for this and said the whole thing was a "Dish cooked up by Marshall".
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In 1916, these artilleries could also shoot down aircrafts with great precision. Further improvements were made including the flash spotting and sound ranging technique which were able to locate the enemy trenches and eventually destroy their batteries. This weapon inflicted the majority of the casualties since it could be used at any time independent from weather conditions, air temperature and geographical positions. In 1915, artillery was present in every single battle because the generals followed the basic rule of Artillery conquers and infantry occupies.2 Shells were also upgraded from normal ones to high- explosive shells with tiny lead pellets in them.
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 In Germany the production of various resources were cut short due to the lack of farmers. The call for millions of able-bodied men into the military drained farm labor and caused diminished production.  All of Germany's economy was focused on the war. Not only Germany was experiencing suffering from their nation's resources and economics being fully mobilized in World War One. Britain, depending greatly on trading, took a huge hit economically because of Germany. A national crisis rapidly developed as the grains and meats upon which the country depended came under enemy attack. The Germans started to sink one out of every four merchant ships sailing from a British port, and Britain's wheat reserved fell far below normal.
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Lastly, there was a rising labor class, the product of industrialization, who danced on the brink of social revolution. Consequently, Juan Domingo Per�n with a fresh and unique personality, advocating self-sufficiency, national unity, and social recognition, established his regime in Argentina due to Argentina's long felt and vulnerable economic model, factionalized political field, and the recently arising social dilemmas about the new labor class. During the first half of the 20th century, Argentina's economic condition could be described as unpredictable and promoting economic inequality. Argentina's prosperity depended heavily on its ability to export large quantities of commodities abroad, to import manufactured goods and to attract a steady stream of large-scale foreign investment to keep its economy "healthy".
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Between 1763 to 1776, colonists confronted many issues in their relations with England. Parliament imposed new regulations and taxes on the colonists. Acts such as the Quartering Act which gave British soldiers the right to be housed in colonists' houses infuriated colonists because they were upset that they were not given the same rights as English citizens in Britain. The lack of separation of powers or a system of checks and balances was a definite problem under the Articles. Although the Articles of Confederation attempted to give the thirteen individual states more control by creating a legislative branch, the structural weakness of the Confederation lay in the absence of an independent executive and judiciary branch.
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and the Mensheviks (meaning less), because Lenin believed that force, and terror to some extent, was the solution for the survival of the Party. For a while the Bolsheviks were ironicaly a minority. Come the First World War, Lenin claimed it to be an Imperialistic war. However, nationalism grew and his support did not. He was seen as a traitor and forced into exile - he fled to Zurich in Switzerland. Lenin believed that a civil war would set Russia straight.
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John Smith: John Smith was an English colonial governor who was elected president of the council and governor of the Virginia colony where the Pocahontas episode took place. Virginia Company: English trading company chartered by King James I in 1606 to colonize the eastern coast of North America. Thanksgiving: is November 29th, 1623 when the Indians gave food to the Pilgrims and they shared a large meal. Today, it has become a holiday. Algonquin: tribe of Native American people inhabiting the Ottawa River valley of Quebec and Ontario.
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Arguably, one of the most important contributing factors to Stalin's rise to power was the mistakes made by his opponents. These mistakes allowed Stalin to take advantage of his opponent's weaknesses and gave him opportunities he wouldn't otherwise have had. The most fundamental one would probably be the Party's failure to publish Lenin's political testament. The testament, which Lenin wrote in 1923, condemned Stalin as "too rude ... and completely unsuitable in the office of General Secretary" and generally portrayed him as the worst candidate for leadership (MacDonald 65).
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The South feared that they were "being overpowered by northern political, industrial, banking, and manufacturing strength; the fear that the southern way of life was threatened by northern control of Congress" consumed them (Davis, 2003). The pressure from the North to conform to wage paid labor added stress in the peace between the Union and Confederates. The South were utterly dependent on slave labor; it proved to be more profitable than paying an employee hence they were not about to renounce slavery.
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