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International Baccalaureate: History

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  1. Thinking Through Qin Shihuang and His Empire. The emperor Qin Shihuang, also called the First Emperor of China was the founder of the unified empire. Under his virtually unopposed rule, Qin Shihuang established an autocratic state with centralized power o

    Some people think that he was an archetype of a ruthless tyrant who "spared the people of China nothing in pursuit of his own selfish ambitions" (E. Zurcher, 654). However, on the other hand, a few Chinese people took the opposite line and praised him because the achievements of Qin Shi Huangdi's reign "have exercised a paramount influence on the whole of China's subsequent history, marking the start of an epoch that closed in 1911" (E. Zurcher, 654). In this encyclopedia, the author does not present his own point of view; instead he just tries to show some objective facts to readers about Qin Shi Huangdi and Qin dynasty.

    • Word count: 1846
  2. Why and with what success did Alexander 2 impose so many reforms?

    The peasants were now legally equal to a common man in Russia. The reasons for the emancipation was because serfdom was hindering the introduction of modern agricultural techniques that in turn made Russia poor and less developed. The peasants were frustrated by the rule of 25 years of military service as the survival rate was very poor. Serfdom was restricting Russia's market from growing also industry growth was hampered making it harder for Russia to implement the capitalistic ways of the West that were improving their economies.

    • Word count: 1887
  3. Canada key role world stage

    Canada's participation in organizations such as NATO has greatly benefited the organization, and the country. The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in Washington on April 4, 1949 establishing the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. (http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com) This military alliance was designed to promote the stability of the North Atlantic area and to safeguard the freedom of its people. (http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com) Since 1949, Canada has been the sixth largest contributor to NATO's military and civil budgets. Canada's investment in NATO has provided our country access to strategic information, exercises with Allied forces, and an equal voice in high-level decisions affecting European security and stability.

    • Word count: 1170
  4. Hitler and Mussolini

    This is because the regime suffered from exaggerated expectations. For example, the unemployment insurance of 1927 failed because it was only viable if the total unemployment was less than 800,000. The Arbitration system aroused resentment of employers. This was shown in 1928 when Ruhr industrialists rejected the arbitration award and locked out 250,000 workers. The economy was also very insecure as it was dependent on foreign investments. There were investments of 14.10 thousand million marks in 1927 and only 10.80 thousand million marks of exports. As a result, high taxation and comparative redistribution of resources away from the elite only reinforced their suspicions of the Weimar.

    • Word count: 1778
  5. Weimar Republic

    Points of Evidence * Bodies such as the Nazi-lead "Campaign for German Culture" campaigned against nudism, homosexuality, birth control, Americanisation and female emancipation placing great importance on church-going and family prayers * To the Nazis, the prominence of Jews amidst the cultural experimentation both increased anti-Semitism and underlined the Weimar Republic's decay * In 1926, the Reichstag passed a law to "protect youth from pulp fiction and pornography" and a list of inappropriate books and films was drawn up and banned from sale to under 18-year-olds * There was an increase of conservative participation in the government after 1929 resulting

    • Word count: 1356
  6. Free essay

    Shaping the American Government

    His first plan was to create the judicial system, which lacked elaboration in the Constitution. The Judiciary Act of 1789 created a structural hierarchy by creating the federal circuit and district courts. Perhaps Washington's greatest contribution to American government was his ideology of foreign affairs. Starting in 1794 with the Neutrality Act of 1794, Washington made it very clear that, in order to preserve the unity of the union, it was essential to "steer clear of permanent Alliances with any portion of the foreign world [European Affairs]."2 This address further proclaimed America's desire to break all political ties from Britain.

    • Word count: 1016
  7. Lions Led By Donkeys

    In this essay I am going to talk about the extent of which the phrase was a fair description of what had happened at the battle of the Somme, by looking at different people's point of view about General Haig. EVIDENCE Douglas Haig was Britain's commander-in-chief during the battle of the Somme and took much criticism for the utter loss of life in this battle. Haig put his belief in one final mighty push against the Germans to be executed in the Somme region of France.1 Haig did not rate very highly the war's new weaponry.

    • Word count: 1699
  8. Adolf Hitler

    Germany and USA began their imperialism almost during the same time. USA had defeated the Spanish and Germany had newly entered the imperialism list. USA chose to expand for domestic reasons as well as for economic issues. Businessmen and politicians suffered economic depression. The Panic of 1893 accelerated expansionism in America. America managed to capture Philippines, Cuba and Puerto Rico. Austria and Russia had been closest allies, as they had signed the 'Holy Alliance Treaty' in order to maintain strong political alliance. However, they had failed to remain allies due to their disagreement over the Balkan policy, and thus, in 1879, Austria - Hungary signed 'Dual Pact' with Germany.

    • Word count: 1548
  9. Stalin's Collectivization

    In the source, a large surplus of agriculture production is expressed through the abundant wheat. In the personal perspective of Stalin, the course of action that will best serve the interest of the country is to have a large units of production, organized along the lines of industrial enterprises and with access to mechanized equipment. It is evident in the poster that Stalin believed it would be far more efficient and would permit the extraction of greater surpluses than the traditional strip farming practiced by Russian peasants if the farms were collectivised.

    • Word count: 1419
  10. Current Affairs: Pakistan Flood

    The devastating effect of the flood is felt immediately as millions of people are displaced from their homes and lives in hunger. Potential long term consequence of the devastating flood includes food shortage, disease outbreak, infrastructure damage, Taliban insurgency, political instability, and economic downturn. For us, the flood will cause concerns in national security as there are fear that the Taliban insurgence will regroup and again cause future terrorism. The issue clearly addressed ethnic nationalism and political nationalism. We have isolated the Muslim religion as a general extremist and we have isolated Pakistan because of its political corruption.

    • Word count: 1596
  11. Historical Investigation on The Establishment of Slavery in Saint Domingue and The United States

    Eventually however, more labor was required, and so began the importation of slaves from Africa and the Caribbean. With the labor provided by slaves, American plantations could expand to unprecedented sizes. As the plantations grew, with the aid of slave labor, the American economy grew as well. This economic growth began to attract more people from Europe, people seeking opportunities to make a living and improve their situations in life. As more people populated the American colonies, and more people settled land, the need for labor to work those settlements increased as well. While owning large amounts of slaves was not common for working class farmers, and other middle class families, the need, or want, for slaves on smaller scale establishments arose.

    • Word count: 1752
  12. Historical Investigation on George Washington's Rise to Power

    In 1759 Washington left the military and returned home to Mount Vernon. There he married Martha Custes. The acquisition of her estate put him among the wealthiest men in the state. He was elected to the Virginia House of Burgesses and held the position for 15 years, till 1774. In 1775, at the brink of the Revolutionary war, because of his prominent role during the French-Indian war, he was selected as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. The soldiers of which Washington took charge were poorly trained, and poorly supplied civilians, and his feats for some time reflected that lack of military prowess.

    • Word count: 1807
  13. History of Mandate System

    Furthermore, the League had 3 powers to force the nations to help keep up to their promises; which were Collective Security, Community of Power, and Moral Persuasion. These 3 powers helped the League accomplish one of its achievements, which was the Kellogg-Briand Pact in 1920 where nations agreed to settle disputes peacefully. Along with strengths, the League had many weaknesses, which will be discussed further on in the review of literature. Review of Literature The League's lack of universality among the major the countries, which were Germany, Italy, Japan and USA, was not there and also it was one the

    • Word count: 1943
  14. USA invasion of Iraq

    After the attack, the Bush administration proposed to the public its reasons of planning to attack Iraq. One of the reasons stated by the Bush administration, was that Saddam Hussein was one of the ringleaders of the 9/11 attacks due to his accusations of sponsoring international terrorism and cooperating with al Qaeda to conduct the 9/11 attacks. Also stated by the Bush administration was Iraq harboring of al Qaeda member and other terrorist groups. This accusation was made based on Saddam's regime of supporting terrorist groups. Iraq also provided economic support for Palestinian terror groups inclusive of the Palestine Liberation Front, the Arab Liberation Front, Hamas and Islamic Jihad for suicide bombings.

    • Word count: 1751
  15. Causes of WWII

    * The small states in central Europe in the League of nations didn't contributed very much and required help. * Without the USSR the league of nations looked like a club of capitalists Why did the League failed to achieve disarmament? * The League of Nation failed to achieve disarmament because the Great Depression caused economic rifts in nations that would concentrate on their own problems first. Rearmament was used as a way to create jobs and help the economy. * The Soviet Union, the weak states in central Europe and Germany made disarmament very uneasy to do. Attempts to strengthen League of Nation * France initiated the Draft Treaty of Mutual Assistance which means that if any country were to be attacked all of the countries in the League would come to aid it.

    • Word count: 1657
  16. Peace Treaty Essay

    The final two main clauses were the guilt clause as well as the reparations. These clauses were unjustified and unreasonable. To ask a country post war to pay vast amounts of money for other countries to rebuild their lives and economy is too harsh. Germany had fought the same war as the allies, and was facing the same problems the allies were facing. But by stripping Germany from its economy, territory and population, how are they able to rebuild their own country?

    • Word count: 1535
  17. Tragicomedia Mexicana

    Tambi�n apoy� a los "Patrones" otorg�ndoles infinidad de facilidades dentro de las cuales encontramos principalmente la exenci�n de impuestos, los cr�ditos y los subsidios. Y para alcanzar su segundo objetivo, deb�a cambiar toda la tecnolog�a obsoleta mexicana y remplazarla con nueva, para lograr que M�xico se industrializara. Para lograr el remplazo y la entrada de tecnolog�a de punta, Camacho aprovech� la situaci�n b�lica en la que se encontraban las grandes potencias mundiales y les ofreci� apoyo a cambio de inversiones y tecnolog�as nuevas.

    • Word count: 1844
  18. Stalin's Rise to Power

    Lacking a firm structure Lenin needed organization within the party. He needed followers who would carry out orders to the very last details and who would not question his decisions. This need for immediate rule and control were in great demand. And it was Stalin who was in such a position to provide those things. Knowing this, he worked hard to display his organizational skills to Lenin, and therefore was promoted frequently. Lenin noticed Stalin's hard work in the party's background and his modest, obedient nature towards the good of the Party.

    • Word count: 1422
  19. Mussolini's Domestic Policy

    The police was replaced by the fascist and controlled by Mussolini. He created his own private army; the Quadri. In November 1923, the Acerbo Law was create; it consisted of giving 2/3 of seat in parliament to any party which would have got twenty five percent or over during elections. That same year, the elections were an enormous victory for the Fascist who won these seats. The Mateotti Affair, pushed Mussolini to govern Italy by force, and by becoming the "Duce" he now had the power to make laws without consulting the parliament.

    • Word count: 1098
  20. In what ways did developments in Germany affect the Cold War between 1945?

    While the Western Allies France, Britain and the United States established themselves in the West of Germany, the Russians were positioned in the east. Berlin, which is geographically situated in East Germany, the city was similarly divided into four occupational sectors, as the Western Allies tried to avert to leave the capital completely to the Russians. Consequently, Berlin became the headquarters of the Four-power Allied Control Council which was formally established to rule Germany. Since Germany's future was a problematic issue, the imposition of separate zones of occupation was both practical and administratively sensible, but it was only regarded as

    • Word count: 1578
  21. History IA

    Australian correspondence between the war front and the home front as well as public displays such as newspapers and movies displayed of the campaign are invaluable sources in determining the effects of the censorship of the Gallipoli campaign on the Australian home front. However secondary sources depicting the Australian home front during and after the campaign will also be detrimental in determining the effects on the home front. Criteria B - Summary of Evidence The Official History of Australia in the War of 1914-18 was written by C.E.W.

    • Word count: 1050
  22. WWI - Total War essay

    and South America (minor affection during the battles, but they still felt the economic fall)). There were significant campaigns in Africa, were there were clashes between the European forces - the British and French fought against German colonial forces in this continent. The British and French took over the Togoland protectorate, but Germans fought in South Africa and East Africa. These battles where very significant and the German East Africa was given up only by the end of the war.

    • Word count: 1225
  23. Historia del teatro griego

    (de trasgos derivara tragedia, debido a que ellos realizaban sus movimientos de una manera relativamente triste, por otro lado de c�mos derivara la palabra comedia, que en ese contexto era otro tipo de gritos alegres lanzados por los danzantes). A medida que los trasgos iban danzando entonaban algunos cantos o textos que posteriormente se convertir�an en lo que ahora conocemos por coro. El ritual arriba expuesto era lo que se conoc�a por ditirambo, el cual fue el precedente del teatro griego, puesto que re�ne dos de sus caracter�sticas primordiales: gente que mira y gente que act�a.

    • Word count: 1763
  24. The last day of troy

    The war lasted ten years . The Trojans proved their might at first, under the leadership of Hector. But as the war went on, there were thousands of casualties on both sides. Patroclus was a warrior very dear to Achilles. He was killed by Hector in battle. Achilles was enraged and swore to kill Hector. Achilles rode his chariot to the walls of Troy and challenged Hector to a fight. He was certain Hector would pay for slaying Patroclus. Hector was one of the finest warriors not only of Troy. He lost his life under Achilles sword. Hector was the prince of Troy, commander of Troy's army. Achilles showed no respect to the body of the slain Hector.

    • Word count: 1018
  25. Assess critically the causes of world war I

    The first kind led to conflict in the Balkans which eventually got other powers involved and resulted in a lot of instability and tensions between the European powers, and the second kind led to rivalries between the European powers as they tried to dominate each other. Some examples of this were the Bosnian Crisis. In 1908, when Austria-Hungary took over the former Turkish provinces of Bosnia, the Serbians got angry because they felt that the province should be theirs. Serbia then threatened Austria-Hungary with war, so Serbia's ally (Russia), mobilized its forces.

    • Word count: 1673

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