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International Baccalaureate: History

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 3
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  1. Investigation: The Cuban Missile Crisis as a Thaw in the Cold War

    * Nothing guides Russian policy so much as a desire for friendship with the United States (Walker 29) * The spies in the sky ranging from U-2 spy planes to sputnik made the Russians nervous and alarmed (Walker 117) * Containment policy (Dobson) * The nuclear weapons of the Cuban Missile Crisis got the United States into the Cold War, and through negotiations they can release the tensions (Bundy 136) Missile Crisis and Initial Heat * "Rational individuals came that close to total destruction of their societies and that danger exists today" (McNamara)

    • Word count: 4023
  2. Was the American Revolution Revolutionary?

    Furthermore, Grenville attempted the Stamp of 1765, which "required that tax stamps be purchased and placed on all legal documents, liquor, and other licenses..." hoping to profit from the colonists in a new way (Jordan 87). However the colonists realized that The Sugar Act, The Quartering Act and The Stamp Act were all devised to use the colonists' wealth to fund England and prevent deceitful colonists from obtaining further wealth. At this time, the colonists were interested in self-government (the policy of salutary neglect), the ability to grow freely, and have the opportunities to obtain proper wealth.

    • Word count: 3409
  3. Source Analysis. This investigation focuses on how Cuba was affected by the U.S. embargo placed in the early 1960s. I will focus on how their medical advances were hindered and how their trade was affected.

    establish open trading relationships, and repeal the embargo. The embargo freezes the existing impasse, induces anger and resentment, restricts the freedoms of US citizens, and makes it difficult for us to exchange ideas and respect."3 As Carter stated, it was primarily difficult for Cuba to exchange any ideas and improve their country; however, this only got worse with President George H. Bush passing the Cuban Democracy Act in 1992, which "forbade subsidiaries of US companies from trading with Cuba."4 The goal of this was to "seek a peaceful transition to..resumption of economic growth in Cuba through careful application of sanctions

    • Word count: 3447
  4. French Revolution and the rise of Napoleon - revision notes

    provided an intellectual justification for monarchical absolutism. A monarch was an incarnation (wcielenie) and symbol of sovereign state. Ruler couldn't be subordinate by anyone, only by God. Louis XIV from Bourbon dynasty - ''I am the state''. Voltaire -> writer, the most influential thinker of Enlightment. Member of first estate (clergy). He spent 11 months in Bastille (prison). He thought, that political system in England is better, than in France. He was against Catholic Church (he thought, it's the most intolerant institution)

    • Word count: 6958
  5. Italian Unification Revision Notes. Italian Politics in 1815

    The angered the middle-class. Ferdinand was also short of money so he cut public spending and halted works such as road and harbour improvements and reduced the small amount of education available. Poverty, corrupt government and restrictions on personal freedom became general. � News of revolution in Spain encouraged the Carbonari and the liberals to take action. Led by a priest and supported by 100 junior officials and soldiers, 30 Carbonari members advanced on the town of Avellino and a widespread uprising took place.

    • Word count: 7968
  6. Analyse the political factors involved in the unification of Italy up to 1861

    Even though this seemed like a success at first when Ferdinand decided to meet the rebels in July, and it also gave Sicily hope to separate itself from Naples. There was a major crisis of prices falling down and peasants finding themselves under huge debts. Sicily wanted a constitution and uprisings took over. As it seemed to be like a success at first, it was proved wrong, when Metternich saw the upsrisings and he wanted to deterimine the Balance of Power, therefore he organised a meeting at Laibach, where Ferdinand asked help from Austria to stop the uprisings in Naples and Sicily.

    • Word count: 3425
  7. Imperial Germany Revision Notes. Powers and functions were divided between the central, or federal, government and 25 state governments.

    � In the 1870s a great deal of useful legislation was passed. A national system of currency was introduced, a Reichsbank was created, all internal tariffs were abolished and there was much legal standardisation. The National Liberals and Bismarck were also united against the Catholic Church. � Given that 80% of all federal expenditure was spent on the army, this threatened to seriously reduce the Reichstag's monetary powers. Thus it was opposed by the National Liberals. Bismarck threatened to call new elections , and the National Liberals shrank from conflict.

    • Word count: 3041
  8. Revson notes on the Middle Ages + their Heritage the Idea of Unity of Christendom

    "were of no inherent value unless God wills it" - therefore, history was to be interpreted as part of God's will + plan - history = struggle of good vs. evil and eternal salvation is the jurisdiction of the Church 2) Middle Ages' thinking saw world as premised and divided into 7 ages - the fifth ended w/Christ + the 7th would begin w/his return - Scripture writings (like Daniel) supported this view - 1st = Babylon, 2nd = Persia, 3rd = Macedonia, 4th = Rome - throughout Middle Ages the thinking is "we live at the end of time" - men/women anxiously watched for signs of the approach of the finale (i.e.

    • Word count: 4110
  9. The Evaluation and Effect on the Formation of W.E.B Du Boiss NAACP during the African American Civil Rights Movement

    Some of the prominent black elite civil rights activist during this era was Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Malcolm X, Ralph Albernathy, Marcus Garvey, and most importantly W.E.B Du Bois. These leaders of the civil rights movement led movements ; such as the Selma Marches, Greensboro sit-ins, and Montgomery Bus Boycotts. Although, most of these movements are led by different activist in various areas in the United States, they all share one similar aspect; during the African American Civil Rights movement many activist practiced non-violent protesting. Some activist also created their own black organizations like Martin Luther King's Christian Leader Southern Conference and W. E. B Du Bois's National Association Achievement of Colored People.

    • Word count: 4301
  10. Detailed Revision notes on the Peloponnesian War and Punic Wars.

    o Ends with "Thirty Years' Peace" (winter of 446-445) * Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) o Breakdown of peace settlement o Archidamian War (431 - 421 BC) o Peace of Nicias (421 BC) * Meant to last 50 years -->Actually lasted 6 o Athens' Fateful Expedition to Sicily (415 - 413 BC) o Second War (413 BC until fall of Athens in 404) * Trireme (boat): 121 ft long/18 ft wide, 170 oarsmen, fast/maneuverable, 184 mile range * Hoplite Phalanx: heavy infantry formation: shield, armor, spears, march close in rows o Hoplites were middle class, depends on cohesion, battles were one

    • Word count: 3361
  11. How far can Britain's colonial legacy be held responsible for Nigeria's problems since independence?

    It was not until 1960 that Nigeria gained its independence but instead of moving forward, the country fell into a state of dysfunction. The Government was corrupt and both ethnic and religious tensions only served to form a dark cloud over the country. This and a series of coups eventually led to a b****y Civil War resulting in the deaths of some 1.2 million people by January 15 19702. After the war, problems continued to persist for the African nation and even to this day, the state is nothing short of dysfunctional.

    • Word count: 4455
  12. Wars frequently begin ten years before the first shot is fired. To what extent does this statement explain the outbreak of the First World War?

    Secondly, Germany believed that an alliance with Austria-Hungary would throw open the Dambe Valley to German trade. Austria-Hungary was a far more important market for German goods than Russia. Also, East Prussian traders feared economic competition from cheap Russian wheat. Lastly, Russia was a potentially more difficult partner to work with. Russia had ambitions to expand in the Balkans and Central Asia thus Germany preferred a weaker partner, Austria-Hungary, which could be more easily controlled. The Dual Alliance committed both parties to action in a future crisis.

    • Word count: 3392
  13. Interwar Years: 1919-39

    * 'War Guilt' involved accepting responsibility for the damage Germany had done to the countries she had attacked. * The French were especially keen to make Germany pay, not least because France, like Britain, had borrowed considerable sums from the USA, who were insisting on repayment. * Germany was made to pay the sum of �6.6 billion in 1921 in regular instalments. For the French, reparations were also a way to weaken Germany. * Reparations proved very unsatisfactory in that they bred lasting German resentment and helped to destabilise Germany's economy and hold back European recovery in the early 1920s.

    • Word count: 4782
  14. Mao - his social and economic policies and his decline and re-establishment of power

    * Furthermore it was natural, given their lack of experience in industrial planning, for the CCP to turn to the UUSR for advice and help in building a socialist economy. Results * It completed the process of nationalism of industry. On the eve of the Five Year Plan, 20% of heavy industry and 60% of light industry had still been under private ownership. * It boosted urbanisation. China's urban population increased from 57 million (1949) to 100 million (1957). * There were important infrastructure improvements such as the Yangzi River Rail and Road Bridge linking north and south China.

    • Word count: 3410
  15. Architectural Masterpieces in England

    Foreign invasions brought with them their own forms of architecture. Each of these gradually became assimilated within English architectural culture. The earliest known examples of architecture in England are the many neolithic monuments such as those at Stonehenge and Avebury. Very few examples of pre-Roman architecture remain extant and are limited to defensive earthworks such as Maiden Castle and Cadbury Castle However, the earliest domestic architecture is that bequeathed to the country by the Romans, who occupied Britain from 43 until 406.

    • Word count: 3724
  16. My research questions: did the United States of America really lose the Vietnam War and if so why did they lose it?

    I also used a few books and WebPages. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Vietnam War was a military struggle fought in Vietnam from 1954 till 1975, involving North Vietnamese and National Liberation Front (NLF) in conflict with the United States forces allied with South Vietnamese army or the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN). Before that during the years 1946 - 1954 Vietnamese had fought France for their independence in the First Indochina War. The ending of this War brought the Vietnamese to a temporary division at the 17th parallel.

    • Word count: 3482
  17. Compare and contrast the policies of the USA and USSR towards Korea between 1945 and 1955

    This report, by the National Security Council, lead to the Americans defending the South Koreans from the invasions of the Communists in North Korea. * Where the superpowers were to take joint responsibility for repatriating Japanese forces, it was meant to be a temporary arrangement. The United States and the Soviet Union agreed at the Council of Foreign Ministers' Moscow Conference on the creation of a Korean provisional government, leading to independence. This became increasingly difficult to achieve over time because the USA and USSR became less willing to co-operate, adding onto the tense atmosphere of the Cold War.

    • Word count: 3122
  18. Did Truman really save 500,000 American live through dropping the Hiroshima atomic b**b?

    air raid alone saw over 84,000 killed and approximately 120,000 injured.7 Instead of provoking peace demands from the people it increased Japanese determination and rage.8 Nevertheless, the naval blockade severely undermined Japan's internal economy with its industry on the brink of collapse;9 by June 1945 Japanese leaders agreed the naval blockade would cause critical food shortages during autumn10. However, despite the evitable defeat, Japan was ready to fight till death11. The holy status of the emperor appeared sufficient "to lead the soldier to fanatical battlefield performance, the people to extreme fortitude, all to self-destruction if necessary."12 The Japanese way of war was 'treacherous'13.

    • Word count: 3264
  19. Bolsheviks in Power Essay

    It seemed that Russia had entered yet a new period of successive failures. With the publicly loathed decision to continue fighting in the First World War, the provisional government became a representation of military embarrassment and army desertion. As the Petrograd Soviet commanded all army officers to solely obey the soviet, it was clear that the army had now resigned their support to the Provisional Government. In any case, when Lenin and the Soviet overthrew the Provisional Government in November 1917, Russia was in a state of "general chaos" (MacMillan, 35.)

    • Word count: 3186
  20. To what extent did nationalism contribute to the creation and expansion of the Indochinese Communist Party?

    However, Vietnamese communism really was quite specific to the history and culture of Vietnam. It is in that context that nationalism and the other factors have led to the creation and expansion of the ICP. Nationalism The escalation of nationalism and the strong sentiment of national-self determination in Vietnam that increased the creation and expansion of the Indochinese Communist Party where not the outcomes of detached and individual features but of a successive culmination of tightly woven factors and events.

    • Word count: 5474
  21. What were the intentions of President Harry S. Truman and General Douglas MacArthur regarding the United States intervention during the Korean War?

    South Korea as a whole has been indeed benefitted from the decision of Truman and the leadership of MacArthur during the Korean War. Table of Contents Abstract 1-2 Table of Contents 3 Introduction 4 Background of the Korea War 5-6 The Course of the Korean War 7-9 Body 10-16 The Controversies Regarding the United States' Intention during the Korean War 10 * President Harry S. Truman and General MacArthur as the Saviors 10-12 * President Harry S. Truman and General Douglas MacArthur as the Self-Interested 13-16 Conclusion 17-18 References and Bibliography 19-21 Appendices 22-29 Introduction The Korean War was the civil war between the Republic of Korea (ROK)

    • Word count: 5633
  22. The Impact of the Manhattan Project on the Cold War

    I would make the pivot, that is, the most important action of this century perhaps of the last few centuries, the Manhattan Project. Los Alamos during the war had a concentration of raw intellectual power the likes of which had never been seen before and probably will never exist again: Oppenheimer, von Neumann, Fermi, Serge, Bohr, Szilard, Feynman, Serber, Teller, Ulam, Morrison, Wigner, Rabi, Seaborg, Bethe, Lawrence, Alvarez, Weisskopf, Peierls. They were assembled from all over the world by a government which, in the middle of the largest war ever, was prepared to devote about 1% of its economy to a project conceived and comprehended by a handful of professors of mathematicians and the most recondite branches of physics.

    • Word count: 3349
  23. History Before WWI

    To run the enormous empire, there was a huge bureaucracy of civil servants and officials - Rigid hierarchy marked by inefficiency - Lower ranks were badly paid and a culture of corruption where bribery was common - The bureaucracy was practically impenetrable for ordinary citizens, whose interests were rarely served properly - Opposition was not tolerated - Cossacks: fiercely independent people who came from the Don area of Russia. Once they had been conquered by the Russians, they became loyal supporters of the tsar and could be trusted to act against other peoples in the empire, including the Russians; used

    • Word count: 5859
  24. How Successful was the Dayton Peace Agreement in Bringing Sustainable Governance to Bosnia and Herzegovina Between 1995 1998?

    And if examined it can be concluded that Dayton has successfully brought Western governance as well as implemented multi-ethnic composition in society to a certain extent while managing to protect Human rights. Word Count: [292] Introduction: The topic of this extended essay will examine how successful was the Dayton Peace Agreement was in bringing sustainable governance to Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1995 - 1998. When the state of Yugoslavia fell apart in the 1990's new states were formed. The newly independent states included Bosnia, which faced a civil war.

    • Word count: 6808
  25. La Revolucion Mexicana IB Extended essay

    Sin embargo, la �nica raz�n de que este importante evento en la historia mundial ha sido pasado por alto es a causa del juicio hist�rico actual que se centra en los cambios formales que sugiere que la revoluci�n cambi� poco en el corto plazo. Esta conclusi�n no tiene en cuenta las bases civiles, sociales y pol�ticas que el M�xico moderno se estabiliz� en completo contraste con la de otros pa�ses de Am�rica Latina. El estudio de la revoluci�n mexicana profundiza a�n m�s las ideolog�as fundamentales que ayudan a crear el M�xico moderno.

    • Word count: 3438

"The function of the historian is neither to love the past nor to emancipate himself from the past, but to master and understand it as the key to the understanding of the present."
E. H. Carr

If you love scouring the text of a dusty old book to get a glimpse of the author's life, then you should consider choosing history as one of your International Baccalaureate (IB) subjects. History is one of ten subjects in group 3 of the diploma programme, and it offers students a solid grounding in medieval or modern history, interpreted through the lens of world history.

If you plunge into this course without good essay-writing skills to guide you, you could quickly find yourself adrift. Prepare yourself by studying Marked by Teachers' collection of IB history papers. Study the marked examples to gain insight into what makes a great essay; you'll soon be editing your own papers with a teacher's critical eye.

Higher Level (HL) history is known for its rigour, so if you do well, and your overall marks are good too, you'll end up with a wide range of historical, philosophical and social studies university courses to choose from.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent was socialism better in dealing with social, economical and political problems in the USSR than democracy was in the United States

    "In conclusion socialism to a large extent was a more successful ideology in the USSR politically since it established a strong socialist state, socially since it abolished all ranks in society and economically because it industrialized the nation. To a small extent democracy in the USA was more successful since there were rights and freedom for the citizens and it economically based on a supply and demand theory."

  • To what extent was the Spanish American War of 1898 a turning point in the emergence of the United States as a world power?

    "To conclude, with the acquisition of the Philippines, just off the coast of China, and of Hawaii and Guam, the USA had now stepping stones which gave it an advantageous position to access the Asian market. Also, the USA had control over Cuba which gave it control over the sugar and tobacco industries and most of the Cuban business. Also, having Cuba and Puerto Rico under control asserted some of the USA's influence and authority in the Caribbean. Also, the change in the US's view of world affairs lead to the construction of the Panama Canal which was essential for USA's trading because it joined the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and it avoided the long and adventurous route around Cape Horn. Many other conquests and takeovers took place following the Spanish-American War, which asserted the power the USA all over the world. So, the Spanish-American War of 1898 marked the change in America's non-involvement policy and interest in world affairs, and, consequently, marked its emergence as a major world power."

  • To what extent was the rise to power of Mao due to personal appeal and ability?

    "In conclusion, it was Mao Zedong's personal appeal which won him a lot of support in the political sphere. By being extensively involved in Party Affairs, Mao was able to showcase his tremendous leadership capabilities. Furthermore, Mao's guerilla tactics not only had a big hand in weakening the Kuomintang's forces but they also won support from the majority Peasant population on which he applied his Sino-Marxist ideals to create a Peasant Run Proletariat. The overwhelming amount of support for Mao generated through the Proletariat and the manipulation of the major tactical flaws of the Kuomintang prevented them to take any further action against the Party. Mao Zedong then went on to become the first chairman of the Communist Party of China in 1943, which was followed by him being named the President of the People's Republic of China in 1958. Thus, Mao's rise to power was due to his personal appeal and his ability to a great extent."

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