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International Baccalaureate: History

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 3
  1. This essay will assess the Australian governments efforts towards reconciliation with Aboriginal peoples, particularly the apology to the Stolen Generations and the Close the Gap campaign.

    This left a legacy of trauma and loss over many generations that continues to affect Indigenous communities, families and individuals today. (Australianstogether.org.au, n.d.) There were mixed emotions within the Indigenous community in response to the speech. Some felt it provided much needed closure and it marked the beginning of a journey of healing and reconciliation: ?Sorry may just be a word, but it should help the history of our past come back into our curriculum for the current generation to learn. An apology will mean a monumental weight has been lifted from people's shoulders.? - Sudye Jackson, retired Aboriginal footballer.

    • Word count: 1526
  2. Extended Essay History: How did the US media reporting of the Vietnam War out of context influence the American public?

    First, the South Vietnamese government did not have a public relations apparatus and were not 1 ________________ really interested in opening themselves up to foreign media (Braestrup 27). Second, the m of the US media reporting from the field in Vietnam found themselves in a foreign countr where the local population spoke a different language, making it difficult to accurately co the South Vietnamese side of the war (Braestrup 28). As a result, the US reporters receive information about the South Vietnamese primarily from US advisors (Ramsey 56).

    • Word count: 4180
  3. The Spanish American War of 1898

    Additionally, ideas presented by Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan, Founder of the Naval War college and author of books based on the ?influence of sea power upon history,? began to seep into the desirous minds of Americans. They yearned to adapt Mahan?s idea which suggested the need to build a powerful maritime force, both naval and commercial, in order for the US to rise against all in such a competitive world. He also suggested expanding the country?s trade by increasing oversea markets for American goods.

    • Word count: 1194
  4. Analyse the reasons for the weaknesses and collapse of democracy between 1918 and 1939 in Spain.

    It was the new cosmopolitan lifestyle against the rural tradition, secular against religion, authoritarian against liberal political cultures. Spain became polarised during the 1930s and thus created two camps which then allowed the Africanistas appeal the to more Right-wing already organised camp on the precedent that the Republic was not able to impose concrete reform that could reconcile all social groups - due to being internally divided. The mini-welfare state the First Republic attempted to impose is an example of this, the promise of a new welfare state raised expectations, but when the Republic failed to fully deliver on this, the Spaniards interpreted it as a policy failure.

    • Word count: 1534
  5. To what extent did the reforms of Alexander II achieve his aims

    Alexander II took all the necessary steps and prepared a platform for future modernization of the country. The first problem Alexander had to face was the serfdom question. By the mid-19th century, there were around 53 million serfs in the Russian Empire making up 90% of the whole population. The serfs were laborers, who were forced to work on the fields of laborers, in return for their protection and the right to work on their land. The peasants were bound to the land and so were in other words legally owned by the landlords.

    • Word count: 2594
  6. In what ways, and with what success, did Alex II attempt to modernise Russia and preserve imperial power?

    The first reform introduced to Russia by Alex II was the idea to for the Emancipation of the Serfs. It granted him the titles ?The Liberator? due to the seemingly generous sacrifice for the Serf population. His intention however, was to liberate the Serf population a on a small-scale in order to supress revolutionaries. Alex II saw that the Serf population was beginning to become restless and he knew that the only way that Tsardom could operate successfully was with the cooperation from the bottom of the social hierarchy.

    • Word count: 1062
  7. Examine the Main Causes of the First World War

    France had been reduced by her defeat to second-rank status and resented it whilst Austria - Hungary on the other hand accepted subordinate status as an ally of Germany (Dual Alliances of 1879). Bismarck saw these wars as necessary in the progression of the empire, he was not a man of brutal force unlike Kaiser Wilhelm II, hence when he died in 1898 the Kaiser passed a Naval Law the same year. This triggered response from the British Empire as it had the dominant navy power as well as France as they were still recovering from the Franco - Prussian war of 1871 and were in proximity.

    • Word count: 1521
  8. Did Mussolinis foreign policies achieve their aims?

    The 1920?s were quite cautious years due to domestic concerns as well as Mussolini?s newness to the position. However, the few international incidents Italy was involved in, specifically the Corfu Incident of 1923, showed his readiness and enthusiasm to use force. The Italians had occupied the Greek island of Corfu after the Italian General Tellini was murdered on the Greek border. Mussolini, bombarded the Greek coastlines and demanded Greece pay a fine, which they eventually did. Intentionalist historians, like Macgregor Knox, believe that there was the premeditated desire for expansion that would be much more prevalent in the 1930?s.

    • Word count: 1313
  9. Women and Communal Strikes in the Crisis of 1917 - 1922 & The Fascist Solution to the Women Question in Italy and Germany

    Men did form groups to gain attention on working-class rights and political reform; sometimes they seldom paid much attention to the needs of their female counterparts who upheld community values. An important march was the one in Petrograd on February 1917, in the Julian calendar which corresponds to our Gregorian March, in imperialist Russia during the wave of losses that hindered the nation in the onslaught of WWI. What originally began as a demand for food to feed themselves eventually became a catalyst for the later Russian Revolution.

    • Word count: 2072
  10. The improvement in Sino-US relations was the main factor promoting dtente between Russia and America in the years 1969-75. How far do you agree with this view?

    Soviet fears of the ?yellow peril? dated back to 19th Century and were reignited by the Sino-Soviet split of the 1960s. Climaxing in 1969 when the Peoples Liberation Army ambushed Soviet troops along the Usuri River, who suffered 59 casualties: this action was perceived by Russia as evidence that the Chinese had designs on its territory. Furthermore, following Kissinger?s secret visit to China in July 1971, the previously internationally isolated China, gained international recognition. She was admitted into the UN with a permanent seat on the Security Council in October that year.

    • Word count: 798
  11. Law and Order in the Medieval Period Assigment - Year 8

    The king would give out grants of land to his most important noblemen (barons and bishops). Every noble would have to promise loyalty to the king have his back when a war arose. They did this at a special service. They kneeled down and swore on the oath using these words "Sire, I become your man." Then the nobles divided the land among the lower lords, or knights who also had to become their vassals (servants). In the lowest spot in society sat the peasants who worked on the land.

    • Word count: 2250

"The function of the historian is neither to love the past nor to emancipate himself from the past, but to master and understand it as the key to the understanding of the present."
E. H. Carr

If you love scouring the text of a dusty old book to get a glimpse of the author's life, then you should consider choosing history as one of your International Baccalaureate (IB) subjects. History is one of ten subjects in group 3 of the diploma programme, and it offers students a solid grounding in medieval or modern history, interpreted through the lens of world history.

If you plunge into this course without good essay-writing skills to guide you, you could quickly find yourself adrift. Prepare yourself by studying Marked by Teachers' collection of IB history papers. Study the marked examples to gain insight into what makes a great essay; you'll soon be editing your own papers with a teacher's critical eye.

Higher Level (HL) history is known for its rigour, so if you do well, and your overall marks are good too, you'll end up with a wide range of historical, philosophical and social studies university courses to choose from.


Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent was socialism better in dealing with social, economical and political problems in the USSR than democracy was in the United States

    "In conclusion socialism to a large extent was a more successful ideology in the USSR politically since it established a strong socialist state, socially since it abolished all ranks in society and economically because it industrialized the nation. To a small extent democracy in the USA was more successful since there were rights and freedom for the citizens and it economically based on a supply and demand theory."

  • To what extent was the Spanish American War of 1898 a turning point in the emergence of the United States as a world power?

    "To conclude, with the acquisition of the Philippines, just off the coast of China, and of Hawaii and Guam, the USA had now stepping stones which gave it an advantageous position to access the Asian market. Also, the USA had control over Cuba which gave it control over the sugar and tobacco industries and most of the Cuban business. Also, having Cuba and Puerto Rico under control asserted some of the USA's influence and authority in the Caribbean. Also, the change in the US's view of world affairs lead to the construction of the Panama Canal which was essential for USA's trading because it joined the Pacific and Atlantic oceans and it avoided the long and adventurous route around Cape Horn. Many other conquests and takeovers took place following the Spanish-American War, which asserted the power the USA all over the world. So, the Spanish-American War of 1898 marked the change in America's non-involvement policy and interest in world affairs, and, consequently, marked its emergence as a major world power."

  • To what extent was the rise to power of Mao due to personal appeal and ability?

    "In conclusion, it was Mao Zedong's personal appeal which won him a lot of support in the political sphere. By being extensively involved in Party Affairs, Mao was able to showcase his tremendous leadership capabilities. Furthermore, Mao's guerilla tactics not only had a big hand in weakening the Kuomintang's forces but they also won support from the majority Peasant population on which he applied his Sino-Marxist ideals to create a Peasant Run Proletariat. The overwhelming amount of support for Mao generated through the Proletariat and the manipulation of the major tactical flaws of the Kuomintang prevented them to take any further action against the Party. Mao Zedong then went on to become the first chairman of the Communist Party of China in 1943, which was followed by him being named the President of the People's Republic of China in 1958. Thus, Mao's rise to power was due to his personal appeal and his ability to a great extent."

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