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International Baccalaureate: History

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  1. Creative writing. Letters from the trenches.

    On our first day of our training the officers woke us up at sunrise with their yelling and shouting and they only gave us only a few minutes to eat breakfast. After our "breakfast" we started marching all day long for miles and miles until we were exhausted and could not walk from our sore feet. We kept marching like that for a couple of days and then I started to wonder when we are really going to use guns to shot and practice.

    • Word count: 1302
  2. To what extent was Germanys defeat in WW1 due to the Allies strengths and successes?

    This is significantly greater the twenty three million troops that were mobilized by the Central Powers. A superficial examination of these figures highlights the sheer strength that the Allied forces had over those of the Central Powers, however this was not the case, as the Allies suffered a casualty rate of approximately 44% of all forces, not including prisoners of war. Allied strength alone therefore could not have resulted in Germany's defeat in World War and did not play a key role in Germany's surrender.

    • Word count: 1100
  3. China's socio-economic changes under Deng Xiaoping

    The major goals of the readjustment process were to expand exports rapidly; overcome key deficiencies in transportation, communications, electricity and primary industry; and redress the imbalance between light and heavy industry by increasing the growth rate of light industry and reducing investment in heavy industry. The purpose of the reform program was not to abandon communism but to enhance it by substantially increasing the role of market mechanisms in the system and by reducing government planning and direct control. The process of reform was incremental.

    • Word count: 2381
  4. Compare and Contrast the Democratic Successes and Failures of Andrew Jackson and Nelson Mandela

    man, President Jackson and the newly formed Democratic Party quickly appealed to state governments to repeal the voting laws setting voting eligibility to only white men with property in order to include all white men in the democratic process. In this respect, Jackson began a political era which embraced the concerns of the common man, instead of solely the aristocracy, and progressed the United States one step further toward a truer form of democracy in which a greater population could represent their voices in government.

    • Word count: 1523
  5. Evaluating the effect of Cnadian internment camps for those of Japanese descent during WW2.

    * On January 19th, 1943, Ottawa passed Order in Council PC 469 giving the RCMP and other government authorities the power to sell off property of the internees without their consent.2 2. Communication and mobility barriers restricted Japanese-Canadians from attaining knowledge of their community events and continuing their day to day lives * The government demanded that all three newspapers printed in Japanese halt production a week after the attack of Pearl Harbour; The New Canadian was able to continue because it was written in English, although it received disrespect from the Caucasian community3.

    • Word count: 2595
  6. Analyse the short and long term causes of the 1917 Feb/March Russian Revolution

    There was poor morale spread throughout the army and at home, and that was heightened by inadequate supplied, equipment food and clothing. Turkey's entry to the war closed the Dardanelle Staits, which had been the major route for supplying Russia from the West. Due to this Russian industry and raw materials could not meet the army's demands for weapons, boots, clothing and munitions. Improvements in the organisation of industry led to some improvement in 1916 but there was a growing anxiety between the soldiers and the officers 'The behaviour of the soldiers, especially in the units located in the rear, is most challenging.

    • Word count: 1904
  7. Compare and Contract the policies of Alexander II and Alexander III in Russia?

    Even though historians argued that Alexander missed the opportunity to build a new Russia because of his determination to preserve his autocratic inheritance. The Emancipation however encouraged freer entrepreneurial initiative, and that he was able to abolish serfdom without any major revolt. J.N Westwood assessment of Alexander II was that "with the possible exception of Khrushchev, no Russian ruler brought so much relief to so many of his people as did Alexander II, autocratic and conservative though he was'...Despite its imperfections the Emancipation was an enormous step forward" This differs to Alexander the III as he had no intention of

    • Word count: 1725
  8. How valid is the claim that in 1914 states went to war due to fear rather than for motives of gain?

    concluded that "final definite responsibility for the outbreak of the ware lies with the German plan of mobilisation" Russia and Austria-Hungary felt that the compromise would destroy their credibility as major powers. France and Germany felt that valuable allies had to be supported lest they themselves be left in isolation. In the German army, the feeling predominated war in 1914 was preferable to war in two or three years' time, when the Entente powers would be much stronger. Lastly, all the participants misjudged the nature of the conflict to which they were committing themselves.

    • Word count: 2336
  9. Hitler's consolidation of power. Step one: January March 1933: control at the center.

    The broadcast was not only aimed to impress the supporters but also to gain new supporters. The following day, Hitler persuaded president Hindenburg to dissolve the Reichstag and on the 4th of February Hitler's government gained the rights to ban political meetings and newspapers. Two days later on the 6th of February, a decree was given to G�ring to control over the entire Prussia. In addition, G�ring also gained control of the German police force with threatened help from Hitler's SA troops. On the 20th, of February Hitler persuades big business to finance his election campaign rather than state fund, which brought about a promising image of legality and independence of the new government.

    • Word count: 621
  10. How did the Nazis establish a dictatorship in Germany?

    On the 7th of April, a law was passed for the restoration of the professional civil Service. The law enabled who believed in other political ideas rather than the Nazis as well as those who were of different racial background apart from the pure German Aryan blood background to be dismissed from their posts. Such law was mainly passed to discriminated the 'Jews'. The effect was immense and let to a large amount of citizens with Jewish decent to losing their jobs. Based on the statistics from the source, about 12.5 percent of the Prussian civil service was dismissed according to their differences in political and racial backgrounds.

    • Word count: 525
  11. Free essay

    May the League of Nations be considered a complete failure? Answer this question and develop a deep analysis.

    It aimed to achieve such goals thanks to a combined action of all its participating members, which were expected to intervene together in the case of any dispute or the unreasonable violation of peaceful coexistence, through economic sanctions and military mobilization -if necessary. It is extremely difficult to determine to what extent did the organization succeed. Although during its first years the League did work within its possibilities to fulfill its mission and appeared to have reached a general consensus, not a long time was needed for its weaknesses to become more and more evident.

    • Word count: 2296
  12. Plan for an essay reviewing a book on Stalin's rule. "The Great Terror: A Reassessment", Robert Conquest

    * Kirov's death the crux of the Great Terror and show trials * Utter submission of Party and people C. Evaluation of Sources * Argument arises from Conquest's view that Stalin personally manipulated Soviet system, rather than merely setting forces of Great Terror in motion * Intent to convey Stalin's personal involvement at all stages - the effect of his "nerve" on the particular arena of Soviet politics in the 1930's * When first published, by far the most complete account available of the purge trials; value lay in publicizing what was unprintable in the Soviet Union * New edition

    • Word count: 711
  13. Davy Crockett, one of Americas best known folk heroes, the frontiersman from Tennessee who gave his life fighting for Texass independence.

    John Crockett was a hard worker but he was never able to catch a break. In 1794 he built a mill which was promptly washed away in a flood. He then changed his business and opened a tavern. It was here that Davy learned how to spin tall tales, something he did until his death. Davy helped out the best he could, mainly by feeding the family with his game. He got his first real work experience when at the age of twelve his father hired him out for five dollars to a man named Jacob Siler.

    • Word count: 1755
  14. Stalin was a necessary evil for the Soviet Union With regard to this statement evaluate the rule of Stalin from 1924 to 1953

    The first year of the 5 Year Plan focused on forcing collectivisation on forcing collectivisation on the nation's peasants. Collectivisations aim was to collectivise farms together, these large grouped farms would be controlled by the government opposed to the farmers in order to increase the agricultural output. In order for the farmers to receive their wages they had to fulfil the governments specifications if they did not they would be punished. Many peasants, especially the Kulaks (the more successful farmers), opposed the government as they did not want to lose their land to collective farms and would be doing far more successful that the wages received from the government.

    • Word count: 1440
  15. hrough an analysis of the consequences of the treaty of Versailles, it is made very clear that immediately, the peace treaty weakened Germany greatly and it also humiliated the country.

    This allowed Great Britain and France to exert most influence over the terms of the treaty. Unlike Great Britain whose territory was not on the European continent, France shared border with Germany and suffered the most in the war so it did not come as a surprise that France had very high demands for the Germans and the French fear of future German aggression was made very explicit through the terms of the peace treaty. Firstly, Germany lost around 13% of its territory and all of its overseas colonies were to be put under the administration of the League of Nations.

    • Word count: 1317
  16. Free essay

    Using one or more examples of your choice, demonstrate how the historian should interrogate an historical document.

    Interrogating historical document can be separated into ten key question; five to composition and five to content, each of which allow the historian to delve into an another dimension of the source. The first of these ten key question is who is the source by? This can be be an author, speaker or artist. It is important for the historian to ask this question as it essential in understanding any biases within the source. For example in document one the author of the text, Pope Pius V is extremely bias towards the Catholicism, calling the Catholic faith 'good fruits'_ and the Protestant faith 'a miserable ruin'_.

    • Word count: 1221
  17. The Life and Policies of Brazilian President Getulio Vargas - analysis of sources.

    Mr Lacerda, a fierce critic of the Vargas regime, was wounded in the foot during the attack on 5 August and an air force officer was killed, sparking fury among the Brazilian military. The driver of the getaway car was later arrested and confessed that one of the killers was the president's bodyguard. President Vargas seized power in the 1930 revolution, dissolved parliament seven years later and banned all political parties and trade unions. He censored the press and suppressed all opposition.

    • Word count: 2273
  18. How Fascist was Fascist Italy?

    During Mussolini's reign, he realized that he needed the support of the church in order to be a successful ruler; his method of obtaining the catholic's support was achieved by granting land to the Vatican state, thus showing his support towards the religious group and urging the Vatican to give his support to the rising Dictator. From an Extreme fascist point of view, this move is considered to be wrong, as, if he were to follow the Fascist ideal, the correct response to such issue would have been much simpler: eliminate the church.

    • Word count: 558
  19. Why did the policy of Collective Security established by the League of Nations fail to prevent the outbreak of war in 1939?

    These dramatic events were only the culmination of a number of significant events throughout the 30�s, which clearly demonstrated the League of Nation�s inability to uphold international stability and peace, the core of the League�s purpose, as emphasised in it's theories of Collective Security and Disarmament . Such events included the Manchurian Crisis, in which Japan, affected by the depression and the lack of export, felt obliged to expand it's territory to provide greater resources and living space to it's population.

    • Word count: 913
  20. Free essay

    Lenin. "in order to achieve and retain power a leader of a single party state meeded to be ruthless, blind to human suffering and yet charismatic"

    Sometimes, in order to improve something, especially a whole country, certain extreme measures have to be taken. The above statement can be considered true to a certain extent, because in order for Lenin to achieve and retain power, he chose to use "ruthless" methods to suppress the opposition. The Communist dictator was also blind to human suffering as his economic policies forced millions of people to suffer a vast famine, and in most cases, die. However, Lenin was also, to an extent charismatic in his ruling.

    • Word count: 1190
  21. The Nature of Revolutions Leon Trotsky once remarked that if poverty was the cause of revolutions, there would be constant revolutions because most people in the world are poor.

    Several events during the 19th and 20th century were aimed at overthrowing the government's oppression, both of which were unsuccessful. The revolt against Tsar Nicholas I in 1905 which attempted to establish a constitutional monarchy and Russia's failed involvement in WWI only increased the population's discontent about the government's corruption and inefficiency. When the Russian monarchy had become progressively weak and increasingly aware of its own vulnerability, the establishment of the Bolshevik party finally exercised authority against the Tsarist regime and they assumed control over the country.

    • Word count: 1693
  22. "Wars frequently begin ten years before the first shot is fired." To what extent does this statement explain the outbreak of the First World War?

    Germany had one of the best armies in the world at that time and furthermore , its size was swelling which created fear and suspicion among its neighbours, which in turn created tension among countries in Europe. Coupled with industrialization at lightning speed, Germany seemed to disrupt the balance of power in Europe, putting her under much attention of other European powers. However, the big change came when Kaiser Wilhelm II got into power because he advocated the "Weltpolitik" which proved to be risky and dangerous instead of the Bismarckian foreign policy which was much more reliable and safe; this change came in the end of the 19th century.

    • Word count: 885
  23. The Roaring Twenties in Australia.

    Australians embraced the automobile with great enthusiasm. By 1929 there were over 450 000 registered motor vehicles on the roads, but they remained expensive. In 1924 a Ford model T cost 185 pounds ($370) at a time when the wage for an average working man was 5 pounds ($10) a week. (SOURCE 3.14 PG 108) Aviation was also the great adventure of the twenties. In May 1928 Charles Kingsford Smith and Charles Ulm became the first men to fly across the Pacific Ocean and in the same year, the Flying Doctor Service began in Cloncurry Queensland using Aircraft owned by

    • Word count: 1456
  24. Internal Assessment - How effective were the policies implemented by the U.S. during the occupation of Japan? (Mock)

    (Asahi Shimbun Staff) * Japanese deaths in the Second World War approximated 3 million; 60% of its factories were out of operation, and Japanese wealth had shrunk to 25%. (Huffman) * The occupation of Japan was the first time in Japan's history that it had surrendered its sovereignty to a foreign nation.(Hanneman) * The US occupation of Japan lasted six years and eight months, from Sep. 2, 1945 to Apr. 28, 1952. (Ward) * 13 million, equivalent to 1/6 of Japan's entire population, was unemployed in 1946.

    • Word count: 1912
  25. Todaiji, which means the Great East Temple, is a Buddhist monastery that was built at the east side of Nara, the capital of Japan, during the eighth century. It was built during a time when Buddhism was widely spread throughout Asia.

    This structure houses a bronze statue called Daibutsu or Great Buddha. The statue was dedicated in 752 A.D. There was a ceremony for the bronze Daibutsu that was called eye opening ceremony. Ten thousand monks, military officials, dancers and musicians in lavish brocaded robes performed in ancient Gigaku dances of Chinese origin.3 For most of the time, the monastery was private to its founder. Patrons would have their own portraits in the temple and have private ceremonies. Although women patrons were not allow to have their portraits in the temple, they still wanted to be one of the founder of monastery.

    • Word count: 1192

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