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International Baccalaureate: History

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  1. COLD WAR ESSAY

    Wartime conferences such as Yalta and Potsdam heartened the relationship between the communists and the capitalists. At the end of World War Two, the American policy towards the Soviets changed drastically. The change in President in 1945 also, caused relations with Russia to worsen. Furthermore, other political contributions to the Cold War entailed the Truman Doctrine. The Yalta Conference organized in Russia on February 4, 1945, brought together three allied leaders, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. The purpose of the conference was to discuss the future progress of the war and postwar. "The idea during the time seemed to be a success."

    • Word count: 2162
  2. why did stalin, instead of trotsky, become the USSR leader?

    It looked like Trotsky being the main contender and Kamenev and Zinoviev being his rivals. So his underestimation played a major role for him, so Trotsky missed many opportunities to get rid of him because of it. For example he did not insisted to publish the Lenin's testament, where it was said to keep Stalin out of power, because he was too selfish and he did not think a lot about the party. Stalin gained the advantage of organizing Lenin's funeral, to prove he was a real communist and to show his loyalty to Lenin by saying in his speech: "In leaving us, Comrade Lenin commanded us to keep the unity of out Party as the apple of out eye.

    • Word count: 1006
  3. Gender Equality in the Military

    workforce, more than ever before.5 Women of all ages were operating cranes, loading and firing weapons to make sure they worked, and acting as firefighters.6 The government used propaganda to interest women in the workforce.7 The women were constantly reminded that the men in their lives were in danger and needed more supplies.8 The Beginning of the WASP General Henry H. Arnold, chief of the Army Air Force, said that "the use of women pilots serves no military purpose in a country which has adequate manpower at this time."9 By saying this, he expressed the feelings of most Americans in

    • Word count: 2839
  4. What is their Story?

    This rebellion turns into a bloody scene that takes it a little over the edge as many crewmembers are killed and only two are spared. Though in history only the cook and the captain were killed, while two escaped on a boat and the cabin boy was also saved along with the two men who had bought the slaves. The men who were saved in the movie told the slaves that they would return them to their homeland of Africa, but at night would lead them west instead, where they were captured off the shore of Connecticut.

    • Word count: 1135
  5. Territorial expansion was the main cause of the civil war. To what extent do you agree with this statement?

    How this was going to take place led to a long and costly conflict known as the American Civil War. I strongly agree that territorial expansion was the main spark that ignited the civil war. As the U.S expanded west, conflicts over slavery grew more bitter and Americans began to identify themselves based on their belief of slavery. The admission of new states led to arguments as to whether they would enter as a slave state or a free state.

    • Word count: 772
  6. To what extent was the Spanish American War of 1898 a turning point in the emergence of the United States as a world power?

    The conflict between the USA and Spain began with the issues in Cuba. According to the Monroe Doctrine, Cuba was in the USA's sphere of interest, but it was controlled by a foreign power - Spain. Also, Cuban revolutionaries were demanding independence from the Spanish and by 1896 there demands by the American public and Congress for intervention in the war between Spain and Cuba, but President Cleveland and his successor, William McKinley opposed taking part. However, in early February 1898, a letter was captured in which the Spanish minister to Washington, Dupuy de L�me, called McKinley "weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd", which increased Spanish-American tensions.

    • Word count: 1201
  7. In what ways, and with what success, did post-war peacemakers attempt to deal with the problems which produced the conflict? Specific reference should be made to two peace settlements.

    This treaty better known as the Treaty of Versailles (1919) ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied powers. A sharp term of agreements, it required Germany and its allies to take full responsibility for the cause of the war. To target the problem of militaristic dominance the treaty called for German armed forces to not exceed more than 100,000 troops, as well as its naval force limit of 15,000 troops, 6 battleships, 6 cruisers, 12 destroyers, and 12 torpedo boats.

    • Word count: 941
  8. Uses and Abuses of History - Margaret Macmillan

    Failure by both sides to understand the other's history resulted in an unnecessary confrontation. In addition, the Americans lost the costly Vietnam War because they overestimated the willpower of South Vietnam and underestimated the determination of North Vietnam (156). If they had paid attention to Vietnamese history, culture and politics, monetary and human losses could have been reduced (157). Similarly, in 2003, Tony Blair2 thought that British forces would be welcomed in Iraq, despite being advised that Saddam Hussein's dictatorship had eliminated most of the country's political revolts (161).

    • Word count: 802
  9. Origins of Writing

    These simple and complex tokens were the first record-keeping device in the ancient Middle East.5 The subsequent development was proto-cuneiform (4th millennium). A typical proto-cuneiform tablet had circles and elongated D-shapes, where the circle represented 10 D-shapes. This effective accounting system was the basis of Cuneiform. 6 CUNEIFORM The invention of writing occurred around 3200 BCE, in the form of Babylonian Cuneiform.7 Cuneiform is a logo-syllabic script, where a symbol can either represent an idea or a syllable.8 Cuneiform was invented because of the need to record sales and purchases.9 For example, tablets recovered from Drehem10, used cuneiform for business administration, records of various transactions of cattle and grain, lists of offerings and accounts of rent and taxes.

    • Word count: 2401
  10. Progress Traps - Ronald Wright

    The first progress trap is the perfection of hunting. During the Upper Paleolithic, Cro-Magnons developed lighter, sharper, longer-ranged and deadlier weapons (36). These developments were responsible for the extinctions of the mammoth and woolly rhino from Europe and Asia, the giant wombat, giant tortoise and other marsupials from Australia and the camel, giant bison, giant sloth, horse and mammoth from the Americas (37). Humans had industrial slaughter sites capable of hunting a thousand mammoths or 100,000 horses (38). Though the perfection of hunting led to short-term prosperity, in the long run, humans effectively killed off their food supply.

    • Word count: 667
  11. 'WWI in Color'- movie reflection

    at the time could trigger a war. Okay, if it were a war just between Serbia and Austria-Hungary I would understand and wouldn't consider it to be such a big deal, but this. This is insanity in my opinion. Bringing in alliances and pretty much involving people from all across the globe definitely makes it a big deal. Some countries like Russia didn't even understand the whole point of launching a world war and getting involved in it. Those countries didn't want to get involved because they were doing so well on their own, growing stronger and becoming better nations as each year of peace passed by.

    • Word count: 813
  12. Women in Nazi Germany

    Besides doing the works they were called to do, they had also a very important role which was to care for the family such as the children and the man. They had to be always at the house cleaning, cooking taking care of the children and doing things that only women could do. Marriage was a really important thing so women could be respected in all ways possible. For marriage to be respected, the couple should be of a different sex and of the same race so it could be approved by the national community and it was based on muted of loyalty, love and respect.

    • Word count: 2438
  13. Changing role of women

    5-Which ways were invented by women to be heard? 6-Who were the suffragists? 7-Who was Millicent Fawcet? 8-Who were the suffragettes? 9-Who was Emmeline Pankhurst? 10-What happened before the war with the suffragettes and suffragists? 11- What was the cat and the mouse act? 12- Did getting the vote change anything related to politics? 13- Why where men afraid that woman got the vote? 14- What where the things that changed after war finished? 15-Who was Margaret Bondfield? 16- Why had women not won the vote in 1914? 17- Did getting the vote change anything related to work?

    • Word count: 2991
  14. Total War: To what extend did Gorbachev overcome the internal problems he faced as leader of the USSR between 1985 and 1991.

    With the election of Gorbachev came the end to the cold war and the USSR. The arms race was not the only that hindered Soviet stability but also its intervention in developing nations in Easter Europe and its involvement in Afghanistan, which had lead to bitter disputes. Towards the end of the 1970's Soviet power in Afghanistan had increase in politics and ultimately with the presences of the Red Army, at the request of pro-Soviet Afghan government. The Soviet presence in Afghanistan contributed to the ending of d�tente.

    • Word count: 1764
  15. Napoleon III contributions to the Italian unification.

    So his intentions were to restore the pope and gain approval from the church to gain credit. So we can see how he helped in the way that he got rid of Austrian influence. Piedmont was a state on the north of Italy and it was an ally with France. Cavour, the Prime Minister, had met with Napoleon on the Paris Peace Conference. After the Conference was over they kept in touch by mutual friends. Napoleon always spoke to Cavour of doing something for Italy, but it was never clear.

    • Word count: 1068
  16. Analyse the factors that contribute to Hitler(TM)s rise to power.

    Six political parties. This firstly did not allow for efficient decision-making. This was proven by the chaos that arose during the beginning of Weimar rule such as the Spartacist uprising, the Kapp Putsch, the Munich Putsch and the various assassinations of Weimar politicians between 1919 and 1923. Secondly, there is a theory put forth by various historians such as William Shirer that the German people were not ready for such a democratic system and were used to an authoritarian state. He says that the "acceptance of autocracy... became ingrained in the German mind.

    • Word count: 1783
  17. To what extent can Mussolini(TM)s foreign policy be described as a failure?

    Of course, none of these plans were to take place in a world without neighbours. Italy was a relatively young nation at this point with many troubles, and to add on to that, she had powerful neighbours to contend with, namely Britain, France and Germany, all three of which had their own big spheres of influence within and without Europe. Mussolini had to, as a result, plan his foreign policies such that they would bring him towards his goals while being careful not to antagonise any powerful nations and drag Italy into conflict, which it was not prepared to do.

    • Word count: 1620
  18. It was Italy(TM)s participation in WW1 that allowed Mussolini to become dictator of Italy. How far do you agree with this statement?

    In 1919 alone over a million workers took part in strikes. To the workers, Liberalism was a total failure in solving their problems and instead, created many new ones. As a result, they flocked to the Socialist Party, whose membership rose from about 50,000 in 1914 to about 200,000 in 1919. The Socialists now advocated revolution and Socialist congress made it clear in 1919 that in order to achieve the aim of confiscating private businesses and landed estates and sharing wealth, violence would have to be used against the bourgeoisie.

    • Word count: 2513
  19. Was World War One a Total War?

    However the war stretched itself to colonies from these European powers such as campaigns in Africa in order for an intervention in this war. Unlike other wars, this war was not only on land, or only on sea, fighting took place simultaneously in land, sea, under the sea, and in air (aeroplanes and bombing). Actually it even went on to trying to destroy resources and means of trade from the other side, this total war had a much broader vision of how to destroy the enemy.

    • Word count: 994
  20. Hitler rise to power

    The Weimar was the republic that Hitler fought against to gain leadership but he failed, this action of leading the Munich Putsch put him behind bars where he planned a new strategy and sought to attain leadership through electoral means. Here were many political breakdowns that would help him, one being the break up of the Grand Coalition (coalition between the DDP, DVP, SPD and the Centre) and the other the use of the Presidential Powers under article 48 in the constitution.

    • Word count: 754
  21. Goebbels contribution to germany

    Goebbels used all sorts of propaganda techniques such as the films a tool of visual media to capture the minds of the masses, the audio media such as the radio and various other forms such as English literature, arts and theatre to pursue the educated and the aristocrats. Goebbels used radio as the most elaborate instrument to spread Nazi philosophy as he sounded Hitler's speeches through these radios in factories and other areas where majority of the population gathered. He used print media for most of the propaganda to a certain extent but it took time to get around 2,700 newspapers under the Nazi government.

    • Word count: 1006
  22. Hitler essay

    Hitler defined the Jews as a race that was considered inferior, various other groups such as the Poles, Gypsies and Slavs. Jews were sent off to concentration camps where they were treated as slaves which later gave rise to slave labour, a number of laws were laid down for the Jews whereby they need a passport to stay in the country and their belongings were seized. Many other groups were identified as an inferior were homosexuals and disabled people who were said to pollute the pure race, one such action of Hitler was when he entered the Grafeneck Asylum and killed all the mental patients as he found them a burden who were unproductive.

    • Word count: 1001
  23. For what reason and with what results did the Second World War allies become post-war enemies

    At the time because of the absence of tension, the terms "Western States" wasn't used. However events such as the loss of the Russo-Japanese War quickly led the Tsar to lose popularity and be overthrown. Then as the Russian civil war broke-up, USA helped the anti-communist forces, clearly stating its opposition to communism, leading to future disagreements with the future Communist empire. The Communist takeover caused the relations with the West to be much weaker, so Communism was what had lead to the origins of the West/Russian tensions. It was not because the West disliked Russia, but more because of its fear of Communism.

    • Word count: 1135
  24. "The First World War was an Accident of History" Discuss

    Tension between imperialist states heightened mainly between Britain, France and Germany as Germany decided to build an empire. France - after Prussia's annexation of Alsace-Lorraine prior belonging to her before 1871 - showed little trust towards Germany's desire to expand. In 1904, Britain and France reached an agreement; granting France the control over Morocco. This was the "Entente Cordiale". However, Germany soon found an excuse to interfere with this accord. On March 31st 1905, the First Moroccan Crisis (otherwise known as the Tangier crisis) took place. The German Emperor, Kaiser, made a visit to Tangier in Morocco and made a speech in favour of Moroccan independence2. France's hopes of putting Morocco under their sphere of influence were shattered.

    • Word count: 1883

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